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Two new species of Bdellidae (Acari: Prostigmata) from China

Wu, You-Fang1; Jin, Dao-Chao2; Yi, Tian-Ci3 and Guo, Jian-Jun4

1Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University; Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region; Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pests in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the P. R. China; Guiyang 550025. P. R. China.
2Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University; Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region; Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pests in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the P. R. China; Guiyang 550025. P. R. China.
3Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University; Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region; Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pests in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the P. R. China; Guiyang 550025. P. R. China.
4✉ Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University; Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region; Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pests in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the P. R. China; Guiyang 550025. P. R. China.

2021 - Volume: 61 Issue: 3 pages: 614-625

https://doi.org/10.24349/YNi9-m8W5
ZooBank LSID: DCE89E5A-BA0C-4FCC-A77A-EF695B4C8D41

Original research

Keywords

Odontoscirus Cyta taxonomy Predatory mites

Abstract

Two new species of Bdellidae, collected from China, are described in this paper. Odontoscirus anzhouensis Wu & Guo n. sp. is described based on adult females, characterized by dorsal hypostomal setae (DHS) shorter than vh3,and different leg chaetotaxy/solenidotaxy. Cyta pseudokreiteri Wu & Guo n. sp. is described based on adult females and larvae, characterized by movable digits smooth and fixed digits with one tooth; chelicera with continuous longitudinal striae; setal formula of telofemora I–IV 6–5(6)–5(6)–4.


Introduction

Bdellidae Dugès, 1834 are active predators of small arthropods which currently comprises five subfamilies, 11 genera and 283 valid species (Hernandes et al. 2016; Paktinat-Saeej et al. 2016; Barbar et al. 2017; Eghbalian et al. 2017).

Odontoscirus Thor, 1913 is the biggest genus of Bdellidae, currently comprises 100 species, including several species previously treated in the genera Bdellodes Oudemans, Hoploscirus Thor, Thoribdella Grandjean, Octobdellodes Atyeo and Biscirus Thor (Hernandes et al. 2016; Paktinat-Saeej et al. 2016; Barbar et al. 2017; Porta et al. 2020). The genus can be distinguished from other genera of the family mainly by subcapitulum with six pairs of ventral setae, trichobothrium present on tibiae II and each chelicera with at most two setae (Hernandes et al. 2016).

Cyta von Heyden, 1826 currently comprises 19 species, which can be distinguished from other genera of the family mainly by subcapitulum with two pairs of prominent ventral setae, trichobothrium absent from tarsus IV and cheliceral bases inflated (Hernandes et al. 2016; Barbar et al. 2017).

In this paper, two new species of Odontoscirus and Cyta are described from China.

Material and methods

Samples were collected from moss and rotten wood in Kanas National Nature Reserve in Buerjin County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Qianfo Town in Anzhou District, Mianyang City, Sichuan Province, P. R. China. Mites were extracted from the samples by using Berlese-Tullgren funnels, mounted on slides in Hoyer's medium (Krantz & Walter 2009), and examined under a Nikon Ni E microscope. Line drawings were prepared with the aid of a drawing tube attached to the microscope. All figures were edited with Adobe Photoshop CC 2018, and all measurements are given in micrometers (µm). The measurements outside of brackets are those of the holotype. The measurement method and setal nomenclature follows Paktinat-Saeej et al. (2015).

Abbreviations: Prodorsal setae: anterior trichobothria (at), posterior trichobothria (pt), lateral proterosomal setae (lps), median proterosomal setae (mps). Hysterosomal setae: internal humerals (c1 ), external humerals (c2 ), internal dorsals (d1 ), internal lumbals (e1 ), internal sacrals (f1 ), external sacrals (f2 ), internal clunals (h1 ), external clunals (h2 ). Anal region: postanals (ps), anal setae (ad); Genital region: aggenital setae (ag), genital setae (g). Ventral hypostomal setae (vh). Dorsal hypostomal setae (DHS). Leg setae: simple tactile seta (sts) attenuate solenidion (asl), blunt-pointed rod-like solenidion (bsl), peg-like seta (pe), trichobothria (T). Palp setae: dorsal end seta (DES), and ventral end seta (VES). The nomenclature of immatures is the same as that applied to the adults.

Results

Family Bdellidae Dugès, 1834

Subfamily Odontoscirinae Grandjean, 1938

Genus Odontoscirus Thor, 1913

Odontoscirus anzhouensis Wu & Guo n. sp.

ZOOBANK: E46D3D6D-B385-4997-8DCD-499CA94EEB3B

Diagnosis

Subcapitulum with six pairs of ventral setae, each chelicera with two setae, proximal cheliceral seta reaching or surpassing the base of distal seta, cheliceral setae distant (distance between bases 1/5 of cheliceral length, or more), lps absent, DHS shorter than vh3 . setal formula of basifemora I–IV 11–10(11)–9–5 sts; telofemora I–IV 8–8–6–7 sts; genua I–IV 6 sts, 6 asl–6 sts, 3 asl–6 sts, 3 asl–6 sts, 3 asl; tibiae I–IV 9 sts, 4 asl, 1 bsl, 1 peg, 1 T–7(8) sts, 1 asl, 1 bsl, 1 T–9(8) sts, 1 bsl–9(10) sts, 1 T.

Description

Female — (n=3; Figures 1–3)

Figure 1. Odontoscirus anzhouensis Wu & Guo n. sp., female: A. Subcapitulum; B. Chelicera; C. Palp; D. Ovipositor.

Figure 2. Odontoscirus anzhouensis Wu & Guo n. sp., female: A. Dorsal view of idiosoma, B. Ventral view of idiosoma.

Figure 3. Odontoscirus anzhouensis Wu & Guo n. sp., female: Leg I; Leg II; Leg III; Leg IV.

Body length (including gnathosoma) 1393 (1357–1516), idiosoma 1028 (1011–1159), body width 597 (584–597).

Gnathosoma — (Fig. 1). Gnathosoma length 365 (348–365), width 96 (83–101). Subcapitulum buccal cone without striae, broken striations at base, six pairs of ventral hypostomal setae (vh1–6 ) and one pair of dorsal hypostomal setae (DHS) (Fig. 1A), vh1 31 (29–32), vh2 45 (45–46), vh3 55 (55–60), vh4 67 (67–82), vh5 96 (96–110), vh6 67 (67–75), DHS 19 (19–27); Cheliceral length 328 (314–328), width 58 (58–65), without striae, and two normal dorsal setae, fixed and movable digits smooth (Fig. 1B), proximal seta 120 (115–121), distal seta 92 (92–103), distance between proximal and distal setae 120 (109–120); palp five-segmented (Fig. 1C), total length 362 (339–362), trochanter 9 (9–15), basifemur 158 (134–158), telofemur 27 (27–31), genu 35 (25–35), tibiotarsus 134 (128–134), VES 160 (158–160), DES 208 (208–215), palp chaetotaxy: trochanter 0, basifemur 6 sts, telofemur 1 sts, genu 4 sts, tibiotarsus 6 sts, 1 bsl, two long terminal setae (VES, DES).

Dorsum — (Fig. 2A). Dorsum finely striated, prodorsum with oblique and transverse striae between mps, base of mps barbed; two pairs of lateral eyes, diameters of anterior one 26 (23–26), and posterior one 21 (18–21), and with longitudinal and oblique striae between anterior and posterior lateral eyes; Hysterosoma with transverse striae between setae c1 , e1 , h1 and h2 , striae longitudinal between d1 , f1 , striae obliquely longitudinal between setae c1 to c2 , and hysterosoma setae finely pilose. Hysterosomal region with three cupules (ia, im and ip) at level of setae d1 , e1 and f2 . Measurements of dorsal setae as follows: at lost, pt 48 (48–50), mps 206 (206–211), c1 82 (80–82), c2 79 (73–80), d1 60 (60–64), e1 60 (60–64), f1 50 (50–60), f2 48 (48–54), h1 60 (56–60), h2 51 (51–55).

Venter — (Fig. 2B). Venter with fine broken striae; area between coxae I–II and III–IV with fine longitudinal broken striae; aggenital region with three pairs of setae (ag1–3 ); genital valves with seven pairs of setae (g1–7 ); anal region with two pairs of postanals (ps1–2 ).

Ovipositor — (Fig. 1D). Ovipositor U-shaped, and with 13 dorsal setae and six ventral setae.

Legs — (Figs. 3). Measurements of legs as follows: leg I 732 (638–732), leg II 705 (660–705), leg III 769 (769–775), leg IV 944 (879–944); Setal formula of leg segments as follows: coxae I–IV 4–3–4–2 sts; trochanters I–IV 1–1–1–1 sts; basifemora I–IV 11–10(11) –9–5 sts; telofemora I–IV 8–8–6–7 sts; genua I–IV 6 sts, 6 asl–6 sts, 3 asl–6 sts, 3 asl–6 sts, 3 asl; tibiae I–IV tibiae I–IV 9 sts, 4 asl, 1 bsl, 1 peg, 1 T–7(8) sts, 1 asl, 1 bsl, 1 T–9(8) sts, 1 bsl–9(10) sts, 1 T; tarsi I–IV 29 sts, 2 asl, 2 bsl, 1 peg–31 sts, 2 bsl, 1 asl, 1 peg–31 sts, 1 T–32 sts, 1 T.

Male and other developmental stages — Unknown.

Etymology

The new species name is derived from the type locality Anzhou District, Mianyang City, Sichuan Province, China.

Remarks

The new species resembles O. communis (Atyeo, 1960) and O. australicus (Womersley, 1933) by two cheliceral setae present; proximal cheliceral seta reaching or surpassing the base of distal seta, lateral prodorsal seta (lps) absent; coxae I–IV 4–3–4–2 sts, trochanter III with one seta. (Atyeo 1960; 1963). However, it is distinguished from O. communis by: (1) DHS much shorter than vh3 in O. anzhouensis n. sp., but approximately equal in O. communis; (2) hysterosoma setae finely pilose in O. anzhouensis n. sp., but nude in O. communis; (3) anal region with two pairs of postanals in O. anzhouensis n. sp., but only one pair of postanals and two pairs of anals in O. communis; (4) basifemora I–IV 11–10(11)–9–5 sts in O. anzhouensis n. sp. but 13–12–8–4 in O. communis; (5) genua I–IV 6 sts, 6 asl–6 sts, 3 asl–6 sts, 3 asl–6 sts, 3 asl in O. anzhouensis n. sp. but 6 sts, 5 asl–5 sts, 4 asl–5 sts, 2 asl–5 sts, 2 asl in O. communis; O. anzhouensis n. sp. is distinguished from O. australicus by: (1) base of mps barbed in O. anzhouensis n. sp., but pilose in O. australicus; (2) basifemora I–IV 11–10(11)–9–5 sts in O. anzhouensis n. sp. but 14–12–11–4 in O. australicus; (3) genua I–IV 6 sts, 6 asl–6 sts, 3 asl–6 sts, 3 asl–6 sts, 3 asl in O. anzhouensis n. sp. but 6 sts, 8 asl–6 sts, 6 asl–6 sts, 3 asl–6 sts, 3 asl in O. australicus; (4) tibiae I–IV 9 sts, 4 asl, 1 bsl, 1 peg 1 T–7(8) sts, 1 asl, 1 bsl, 1 T–9(8) sts, 1 bsl–9(10) sts, 1 T in O. anzhouensis n. sp. but 11 sts, 3 asl, 1 bsl 1 peg, 1 T–12 sts, 1 asl, 1 bsl, 1 T–13 sts, 1 asl–13 sts, 1 T in O. australicus.

Type material

Holotype female (No. SC–OD–201905140301) and two paratype females (No. SC–OD–201905140302; SC–OD–201905131401), collected from moss and fallen leaves, Qianfo Town, (31°41′28.62″ N 104°16′43.32″ E; 31°45′20.96″ N 104°13′46.15″ E; elevation 845, 2361 m) Anzhou District, Mianyang City, Sichuan Province, P. R. China, collected by Yun Long, 4–V–2019.

All types are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, P. R. China (GUGC) (Zhang 2018).

Subfamily Cytinae Grandjean, 1938

Genus Cyta von Heyden, 1826

Cyta pseudokreiteri Wu & Guo n. sp.

ZOOBANK: 94262FFB-320A-4316-894D-D86DD16EAEB1

Diagnosis

Subcapitulum with two pairs of prominent ventral setae; trichobothrium absent from tarsus IV; unpaired median eye present; coxae and subcapitulum without reticulations; prodorsal seta mps not reaching the base of co-lateral lps; tibiae I and tarsi III each without trichobothria; coxae IV with three setae, basifemora III–IV with 7–4 setae; movable digits smooth and fixed digits each with one tooth; chelicera with continuous longitudinal striae; setal formula of telofemora I–IV 6–5(6)–5(6)–4; genua I–IV 7 sts, 1 asl–7(6) sts, 1 asl–6 sts, 1 asl–5(6) sts.

Description

Female — (n=5; Figures 4–6)

Figure 4. Cyta pseudokreiteri Wu & Guo n. sp., female: A. Subcapitulum; B. Chelicera; C. Palp; D. Ovipositor.

Figure 5. Cyta pseudokreiteri Wu & Guo n. sp., female: A. Dorsal view of idiosoma, B. Ventral view of idiosoma.

Figure 6. Cyta pseudokreiteri Wu & Guo n. sp., female: Leg I; Leg II; Leg III; Leg IV.

Body length (including gnathosoma) 1118 (1095–1276), idiosoma 851 (844–1021), body width 563 (563–762).

Gnathosoma — (Fig. 4). Gnathosoma length 256 (233–286), width 124 (114–139). Subcapitulum striae weak, continuous transverse striae at base, buccal cone non striated, two pairs of ventral hypostomal setae (vh1–2 ) (Fig. 4A), vh1 93 (80–93), vh2 49 (49–59); Cheliceral length 256 (233–286), width 124 (114–139), with weak continuous longitudinal striae, and two dorsal setae, movable digits smooth and fixed digits each with one tooth (Fig. 4B), proximal seta 89 (89–106), distal seta 44 (37–46), distance between proximal and distal setae 145 (145–155); palp five-segmented (Fig. 4C), total length 348 (317–356), trochanter 14 (14–28), basifemur 153 (130–157), telofemur 41 (41–52), genu 32 (32–41), tibiotarsus 86 (81–94), VES 176 (164–191), DES 247 (229–259), palp chaetotaxy: trochanter 0, basifemur 6 sts, telofemur 1 sts, genu 4 sts, tibiotarsus 4 sts, 1 bsl, two long terminal setae (VES, DES).

Dorsum — (Fig. 5A). Prodorsum median with continuous longitudinal striae, at to mps with continuous transverse striae; two pairs of lateral eyes and one unpaired median eye, diameters of anterior one 21 (21–25), and posterior one 19 (18–20), median eye 20 (17–20), with oblique striae between anterior and posterior lateral eyes; hysterosoma with broken transverse striae between setae c1 , d1 , e1 , f2 , h2 , while with continuous striae in laterally, and hysterosoma setae finely pilose; hysterosomal region with three cupules (ia, im and ip); Measurements of dorsal setae as follows: at 229 (229–272), pt 302 (302–317), lps 70 (70–79), mps 56 (56–69), c1 50 (50–62), c2 47 (47–59), d1 47 (47–60), e1 48 (47–61), f1 57 (49–57), f2 60 (58–62), h1 57 (57–69), h2 60 (52–66).

Venter — (Fig. 5B). Striae longitudinal between coxae I–II and III–IV, and oblique striae between coxae II–III; aggenital region with six or seven pairs of setae (ag1–6 (*7*)); genital valves with nine pairs of setae (g1 –*9*); anal region with two pairs of anal setae (ad1–2 ), three pairs of postanals (ps1–3 ).Ovipositor — (Fig. 4D). Ovipositor tube-shaped, and with 11 dorsal setae and six ventral setae.

Legs — (Figs. 6). Measurements of legs as follows: leg I 637 (602–675), leg II 568 (553–615), leg III 636 (592–670), leg IV 751 (687–790). Setal formula of leg segments as follows: coxae I–IV 5–4–4–3 sts; trochanters I–IV 2–2–2–2 sts; basifemora I–IV 9–9(7)–8(7)–4 sts; telofemora I–IV 6–5(6)–5(6)–4 sts; genua I–IV 7 sts, 1 asl–7(6) sts, 1 asl–6 sts, 1 asl–5(6) sts; tibiae I–IV 9 sts, 1 asl, 2 bsl–9 sts, 2 bsl–9 sts, 1 bsl–8 sts, 1 T; tarsi I–IV 30 sts, 2 asl, 2 bsl,1 pe–26 sts, 1 bsl, 1 pe–22 sts–22 sts, 1 asl.

Larvae — (n=6; Figures 7–8)

Figure 7. Cyta pseudokreiteri Wu & Guo n. sp., larva: A. Dorsal view of idiosoma, B. Ventral view of idiosoma.

Figure 8. Cyta pseudokreiteri Wu & Guo n. sp., larva: A. Subcapitulum; B. Chelicera; C. Palp; D. Leg I; Leg II; Leg III; Leg IV.

Body length (including gnathosoma) 512–568, idiosoma 422–468, body width 292–349.

Dorsum — (Fig. 7A). Dorsum with broken striae; Two pairs of lateral eyes, diameters of anterior one 10–14, and posterior one 7–10, median eye 8–10; hysterosoma setae finely pilose; Hysterosomal region with three cupules (ia, im and ip); Measurements of dorsal setae as follows: at 115–120, pt 151–154, lps 25–30, mps 25–28, c1 27–30, c2 21–24, d1 27–33, e1 30–36, f1 37–44, f2 41–49, h1 37–49, h2 41–51.

Venter — (Fig. 7B). Resembling female, but all regions with broken striae; without genital valves, genital and aggenital setae; anal region with three pairs of postanals (ps1–3 ), no anal setae.

Gnathosoma — (Fig. 8A, B, C). Gnathosoma length 233–286, width 114–139. Subcapitulum striae more remarkable than those of female, broken transverse striae at base, buccal cone non striated, two pairs of ventral hypostomal setae (vh1–2 ) (Fig. 8A), vh1 26–34, vh2 15–22; Cheliceral length 89–100, width 42–52, with broken longitudinal striae, and two dorsal setae, fixed and movable digits smooth (Fig. 8B), proximal setae 42–55, distal seta16–18, distance between proximal and distal setae 53–58; Palp five-segmented (Fig. 8C), total length 125–132, trochanter 9–13, basifemur 35–47, telofemur 17–23, genu 16–19, tibiotarsus 32–34, VES 63–69, DES 84–93, palp chaetotaxy: trochanter 0, basifemur 1 sts, telofemur 1 sts, genu 4 sts, tibiotarsus 4 sts, 1 bsl, two long terminal setae (VES, DES).

Legs — (Figs. 8D). Measurements of legs as follows: leg I 230–303, leg II 199–271, leg III 233–317; Setal formula of leg segments as follows: coxae I–III 3–1–2 sts; trochanters I–III 1–1–1 sts; basifemora I–III 7–6–5 sts; genua I–III 5 sts, 1 asl–6 sts–5 sts tibiae I–III 5 sts, 1 asl, 2 bsl–5 sts, 2 bsl–5 sts, 1 bsl; tarsi I–III 15 sts, 2 asl, 1 bsl–13 sts, 1 bsl, 1 pe–13 sts.

Male and other developmental stages — Unknown.

Etymology

The new species name is derived from its similarity to C. kreiteri Barbar & Ueckermann, 2017.

Remarks

The new species resembles C. kreiteri (Barbar & Ueckermann 2017) by having coxae and subcapitulum without reticulations; prodorsal seta mps not reaching the base of lateral lps; tibiae I and tarsi III each without trichobothria; coxae IV with three setae, basifemora III–IV with 7(8)–4 setae. However, it is distinguished from C. kreiteri by having: (1) Hysterosoma with broken transverse striae between setae c1 , d1 , e1 , f2 , h2 , while with continuous striae in laterally in C. pseudokreiteri n. sp., but dorsal idiosoma with broken striae in C. kreiteri; (2) movable digits smooth and fixed digits each with one tooth in C. pseudokreiteri n. sp., but movable digits with one tooth and fixed digits each with two teeth in C. kreiteri; (3) Chelicera with continuous longitudinal striae in C. pseudokreiteri n. sp., but striation transverse and broken from cheliceral base to level of proximal seta and then longitudinal toward chelae in kreiteri (4) Setal formula of telofemora I–IV 6–5(6)–5(6)–4 in C. pseudokreiteri n. sp., but 7–7–7–4 in C. kreiteri; (5) Setal formula of tibiae I–IV 9 sts, 1 asl, 2 bsl–9 sts, 2 bsl–9 sts, 1 bsl–8 sts, 1 T in C. pseudokreiteri n. sp., but tibiae I–IV 9 sts, 3 asl–9 sts,1 asl,1 bsl–9 sts,1 bsl–8 sts,1 T.

Type material

Holotype female (No. XJ–CY–201907080101–I), four paratype females (No. XJ–CY–201907070201–I; XJ–CY–201907070202–I; XJ–CY–201907071001–I; XJ–CY–201907071002–I), six larvae (No. XJ–CY–201907070201–V; XJ–CY–201907071001–V–XJ–CY–201907071003–V; XJ–CY–201907071101–V; XJ–CY–201907080501–V), were collected from moss and rotten wood, Kanas National Nature Reserve (48°38′1.54″ N 86°42′42.61″ E; 48°42′22.59″ N 87°2′0.92″E; 48°31′51.87″ N 87°25′36.80″ E; elevation 1377, 1406, 1514 m) Buerjin County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, P. R. China, collected by Jian-Xin Chen, 4–VII–2019.

All types are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, P. R. China (GUGC).

Discussion

The Bdellidae currently comprises four subfamilies, seven genera and 26 valid species in China based on limited studies in a few provinces (Lin & Zhang 2010). Considering the diverse environmental types in China, many more species are expected to be present in China. Therefore, more works are still needed to discover the mite fauna of Bdellidae in China.

Acknowledgements

Thanks to Jian-Xin Chen and Yun Long for collecting samples for the study. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31772421, 31750002). Graduate Education Innovation Project of Guizhou Province (Qian Jiao He YJSCXJH [2020] 072). Guizhou Science and Technology Project No. Qiankehe Pingtai Rencai [2017] 5788.



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Article editorial history

Date received:
2021-04-15
Date accepted:
2021-07-14
Date published:
2021-07-21

Edited by:
Faraji, Farid

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
2021 Wu, You-Fang; Jin, Dao-Chao; Yi, Tian-Ci and Guo, Jian-Jun

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