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Two new species of Armascirus (Acariformes: Cunaxidae) from China

Chen, Jian-Xin1; Yi, Tian-Ci2; Guo, Jian-Jun3 and Jin, Dao-Chao4

1Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou, 550025, P.R. China & Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region; Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pest in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the P. R. China, Guiyang 550025. P. R. China.
2Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou, 550025, P.R. China & Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region; Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pest in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the P. R. China, Guiyang 550025. P. R. China.
3✉ Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou, 550025, P.R. China & Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region; Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pest in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the P. R. China, Guiyang 550025. P. R. China.
4✉ Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou, 550025, P.R. China & Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region; Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pest in Guiyang, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the P. R. China, Guiyang 550025. P. R. China.

2021 - Volume: 61 Issue: 2 pages: 453-467

https://doi.org/10.24349/acarologia/20214444
ZooBank LSID: EA040A9A-D6AA-4166-8FDB-8777D5D641DD

Original research

Keywords

predatory mites taxonomy Tibet Yunnan

Abstract

Two new species, Armascirus apophysis Chen & Jin n. sp. and Armascirus yulongensis Chen & Jin n. sp. are described and illustrated. Armascirus apophysis Chen & Jin n. sp. differs from all other Armascirus by presence of one apophysis on palp basifemur; A. yulongensis Chen & Jin n. sp. differs from all other Armascirus by presence of five pairs of genital setae.


Introduction

Members of the family Cunaxidae Thor, 1902 are predatory mites, which can prey on small arthropods such as mites, collembolans, nematodes and fungi, and some are even cannibalistic (Smiley 1992; Skvarla et al. 2014; Hernandes et al. 2015). Currently, there are more than 400 known species around the world (Skvarla & Dowling 2019).

Den Heyer (1978) erected genus Armascirus with the type Armascirus huyssteeni Den Heyer, 1978, which belongs to the subfamily Cunaxinae Den Heyer, 1978. Currently, this subfamily contains seven genera (Cunaxa Von Heyden, 1826, Armascirus Den Heyer, 1978, Dactyloscirus Berlese, 1916, Rubroscirus Den Heyer, 1979, Riscus Den Heyer, 2006, Allocunaxa Den Heyer & Castro, 2008, Cuaxatricha Castro & Den Heyer, 2008) and 179 known species in the world, of which Armascirus contains 49 species (Skvarla et al. 2014; Kalúz et al. 2014; Rocha et al. 2017; Kalúz & Starý 2018; Skvarla & Dowling 2019; Wurlitzer et al. 2020). However, there are only three species of the genus recorded in China, A. taurus (Kramer, 1881) (Tseng 1980; Liang 1983; Bu & Li 1987; Hu 1997; Lin & Zhang 2000; Lin & Zhang 2010), A. bison (Berlese, 1888) (Hu 1997; Lin & Zhang 2010) and A. jini Liu, Yi & Guo, 2015 (Liu et al. 2015).

In this work, we add two species new to science for the genus Armascirus, A. apophysis Chen & Jin n. sp. from Bomi County, Linzhi City, Tibet Autonomous Region and A. yulongensis Chen & Jin n. sp. from Yulong Snow Mountain, Lijiang City, Yunnan Province, P. R. China.

Material and methods

Samples of moss on stone were collected from roadside (N29°54′4.35″, E95°30′12.10″, elevation 2628 m), Bomi County, Linzhi City, Tibet, China and fallen leaves were collected in a forest, Yulong Snow Mountain (N27°00′11″, E100°10′45″, elevation 3230 m), Lijiang City, Yunnan Province, P. R. China. Samples were placed in a Berlese-Tullgren funnels for 8–12 hours to extract the mites, then they were preserved in 75% alcohol, and mounted in Hoyer's medium on slides (Krantz & Walter 2009). Coordinates and altitudes were obtained by smartphone with GPS. Line drawings were prepared with the aid of a drawing tube attached to a phase contrast Nikon Ni E microscope with DIC optics and photographs were taken using a camera (Nikon DS-Ri 2) attached to a Nikon Ni E microscope with DIC optics. All figures were edited with Adobe Photoshop CC 2019. Measurements (given in micrometers, µm) were taken using the software Nikon NIS Elements AR 4.50 with those of the holotype followed by the measurements of paratypes in parentheses. The dorsal and ventral setal notations follow Skvarla et al. (2014), and the legs follow Den Heyer (1981).

Abbreviations: asl—attenuate solenidion, at—anterior trichobothria, bsl—blunt rod-like solenidion, dtsl—dorsoterminal solenidion, fam—famulus (=peg organ), hg—hypognathal seta, hgs—hysterogastral seta, lps—lateral proterosomal seta, mps—median proterosomal seta, mst—microseta, ppgs—propodogastral seta, ps—pseudanal seta, pt—posterior trichobothria, sts—simple tactile seta, T—trichobothrium, tsl—terminal solenidion.

Results

Family Cunaxidae Thor, 1902

Subfamily Cunaxinae Den Heyer, 1978

Armascirus Den Heyer, 1978

Generic diagnosis: see Skvarla et al. (2014).

Type species: Armascirus huyssteeni Den Heyer, 1978

Armascirus apophysis Chen & Jin n. sp.

ZOOBANK: 0CC0B2B1-CD91-4B65-9140-E7C83248F03D

(Figures 1–8)

Diagnosis

The new species can be distinguished from other known species in the genus Armascirus by the presence of an apophysis on the palp basifemur, so far, the only species with an apophysis on the palp basifemur in this genus.

Description

Female (one specimen, holotype; Figures 1–5)

Idiosoma long 520, wide 386.

Figure 1. Armascirus apophysis Chen & Jin n. sp., female holotype: A, dorsal idiosoma; B, ventral idiosoma.

Figure 2. Armascirus apophysis Chen & Jin n. sp., female holotype: A–C, dorsal idiosoma (photo); D–E, ventral idiosoma (photo).

Dorsum (Figures 1A, 2A–C) — Proterosomal shield 144 long, 265 wide, and covered by reticulations; bearing two pairs of trichobothria (at and pt), two pairs of tactile setae (lps and mps), lps closer to pt than at. Hysterosomal (median) shield 22 long, 55 wide and with reticulations, one pair of lateral plates 34 long, 12 wide, and also with reticulations; except for median shield and lateral plates, hysterosomal dorsum soft, striated, with six pairs of simple setae (c1, c2, d1, e1, f1, h1) and one pair of lyrifissures (im) situated anterolaterally to f1. Setal lengths and distances: at 290, pt ?, lps 11, mps 8, c1 12, c2 13, d1 16, e1 16, f1 28, h1 39; at-at 35, pt-pt 265, lps-lps 225, mps-mps 98, lps-mps 80, at-lps 126, pt-mps 83, pt-lps 34, at-mps 133, at-pt 170, c1-c1 140, c2-c2 248, d1-d1 78, e1-e1 104, f1-f1 39, h1-h1 40 ,c1-c2 78, c1-d1 76, c2-d1 85, d1-e1 97, e1-f1 60, f1-h1 35. Anal region with two pairs of pseudanal setae (ps1–ps2) subequal and 22 in length, one pair of h2, 16 in length, and one pair of lyrifissures (ih) close to ps2.

Venter (Figures 1B, 2D–E) — Ventral area between coxae I and the gnathosoma with transverse striae. Coxae I–II with papillae, but coxae III–IV with reticulations; between coxae I–IV plates centrally with longitudinal striae anterior to hgs1; areas between hgs1 and genital plates with transverse striae. Setal formula of coxal plates I–IV: 3(1ac)-2(2bc)-3(3ac)-3(4ac) sts; one pair of propodogastral setae (ppgs), 12 in length, and five pairs of hysterogastral setae (hgs1–hgs5), 28, 43, 43, 43 and 43 in length, respectively. Genital plates with reticulations and papillae, two pairs of visible genital papillae and four pairs of genital setae (g1g4) that 26, 29, 31, 38 in length, respectively.

Figure 3. Armascirus apophysis Chen & Jin n. sp., female holotype: A, palp; B, chelicerae; C, subcapitulum.

Figure 4. Armascirus apophysis Chen & Jin n. sp., female holotype: A–B, an apophysis on palp basifemur; tritonymph paratype: C, an apophysis on palp basifemur.

Gnathosoma (Figures 3A–C, 4A–B) — Palp (Figures 3A, 4A–B). Five-segmented, 412 long, all segments with papillae. Palp chaetotaxy: trochanter — none; basifemur — one dorsal simple seta and one pointed apophysis; telofemur — one dorsal spine-like seta, one pointed apophysis and one blunt apophysis; genu — two spine-like setae, two simple setae and one elongate pointed apophysis; tibiotarsus — three simple setae, one spine-like seta and one distal solenidion; claw well-developed. Chelicera (Figure 3B). 255 long, with reticulations and punctations; cheliceral seta 16 in length; chela developed. Subcapitulum (Figure 3C). 304 long, 170 wide and with papillae; two pairs of short adoral setae, ads1–ads2, 14 and 5 in length; four pairs of hypostomal setae, hg1–hg4, 25, 22, 14 and 69 in length, respectively. Distances of hg setae: hg1-hg1 10, hg2-hg2 26, hg3-hg3 53, hg4-hg4 124, hg1-hg2 42, hg2-hg3 129, hg3-hg4 48.

Figure 5. Armascirus apophysis Chen & Jin n. sp., female holotype: A–D, leg I–IV, respectively.

Legs (Figures 5A–D) — With reticulations, lengths of leg I–IV: 523, 477, 536, 583; lengths of tarsus I–IV: 217, 186, 224, 230. T on tibia IV 106 in length. Legs I–IV chaetotaxy: coxae I–IV 3-2-3-3 sts; trochanters I–IV 1-1-2-1 sts; basifemora I–IV 5-5-4-2 sts; telofemora I–IV 4-4-4-4 sts. Genu I 3 asl, \{1 asl, 1mst\}, 4 sts; genu II 2 asl, 5 sts; genu III 1 asl, 5 sts; genu IV 2 asl, 5 sts. Tibia I 1 asl, \{1 asl, 1mst\}, 4 sts; tibia II 1 bsl, 5 sts; tibia III 1 bsl, 5 sts; tibia IV 1 smooth T, 4 sts. Tarsus I 4 asl, 1 fam, 1 dtsl, 22 sts; tarsus II 1 bsl, 1 dtsl, 22 sts; tarsus III 1 dtsl, 23 sts; tarsus IV 1 dtsl, 19 sts.

Tritonymph (one specimen, paratype; Figures 4C, 6–8).

Figure 6. Armascirus apophysis Chen & Jin n. sp., tritonymph paratype: A, dorsal idiosoma; B, ventral idiosoma.

Idiosoma 412 long, 262 wide.

Dorsum (Figure 6A) — Resembling the female. Proterosomal shield 130 long, 166 wide; hysterosomal (median) shield 33 long, 39 wide and lateral plates 22 long, 8 wide. Setal lengths and distances: at 237, pt 404, lps 9, mps 8, c1 10, c2 10, d1 10, e1 14, f1 19, h1 25; at-at 32, pt-pt 180, lps-lps 172, mps-mps 60, lps-mps 72, at-lps 101, pt-mps 62, pt-lps 32, at-mps 110, at-pt 126, c1-c1 95, c2-c2 184, d1-d1 50, e1-e1 63, f1-f1 49, h1-h1 30, c1-c2 53, c1-d1 56, c2-d1 70, d1-e1 61, e1-f1 44, f1-h1 36; pseudanal setae (ps1–ps2), 11 and 12 in length, h2 16 in length.

Venter (Figure 6B) — Resembling the female. Propodogastral setae (ppgs), 13 in length, and four pairs of hysterogastral setae (hgs1–hgs4), 15, 24, 24 and 24 in length; genital setae (g1–g4) that 16, 19, 18, 20 in length, respectively.

Figure 7. Armascirus apophysis Chen & Jin n. sp., tritonymph paratype: A, palp; B, chelicerae; C, subcapitulum.

Gnathosoma (Figures 4C, 7AC) — Resembling the female. Palp (Figures 4C, 7A) 290 long. Chelicera (Figure 7B). 195 long, cheliceral seta 18. Subcapitulum (Figure 7C). 221 long, 122 wide; lengths of ads1–ads2: 13 and 3; lengths of hg1hg4: 19, 22, 11 and 56. Distances of hg setae: hg1-hg1 8, hg2-hg2 25, hg3-hg3 39, hg4-hg4 84, hg1-hg2 33, hg2-hg3 94, hg3-hg4 37.

Figure 8. Armascirus apophysis Chen & Jin n. sp., tritonymph paratype: A–D, leg I–IV, respectively.

Legs (Figures 8A–D) — Resembling the female; lengths of leg I–IV: 380, 340, 407, 450; lengths of tarsus I–IV: 159, 140, 172, 173. T 68 in length; legs I–IV chaetotaxy: coxae I–IV 3-2-3-3 sts; trochanters I–IV 1-1-2-1 sts; basifemora I–IV 5-5-3-0 sts; telofemora I–IV 4-4-4-4 sts. Genu I 3 asl, \{1 asl, 1mst\}, 4 sts; genu II 2 asl, 5 sts; genu III 1 asl, 5 sts; genu IV 2 asl, 5 sts. Tibia I 1 asl, \{1 asl, 1mst\}, 4 sts; tibia II 1 bsl, 5 sts; tibia III 1 bsl, 5 sts; tibia IV 1 smooth T, 4 sts. Tarsus I 4 asl, 1 fam, 1 dtsl, 18 sts; tarsus II 1 bsl, 1 dtsl, 17 sts; tarsus III 1 dtsl, 16 sts; tarsus IV 1 dtsl, 16 sts.

Other developmental stages — Unknown.

Etymology

The new species name refers to palp basifemur with one pointed apophysis (apophysis).

Remark

The single apophysis on the palp basifemur in the new species, distinguishes it from other species in the genus Armascirus. It is close to A. fendai Kalúz & Vrabec, 2013 (adult female), but differs from it by following characters: (1) palp basifemur with one pointed apophysis (vs. without in A. fendai); (2) genu I 3 asl, \{1 asl, 1mst\}, 4 sts (vs. 1 asl, \{1 asl, 1mst\}, 5 sts in A. fendai); (3) tibia I 1 asl, \{1 asl, 1mst\}, 4 sts (vs. 1 asl, 5 sts in A. fendai); (4) tarsus I 22 sts (vs. 15 sts in A. fendai); (5) tarsus II 22 sts (vs. 12 sts in A. fendai); (6) tarsus III 23 sts (vs. 11 sts in A. fendai); (7) tarsus IV 19 sts (vs. 11 sts in A. fendai).

Type series

Holotype, female was collected from moss on stone, Bomi County (N29°54′4.35″, E95°30′12.10″, elevation 2628 m), Linzhi City, Tibet Autonomous Region, P. R. China, on 17 July, 2019, by Jian-Xin Chen, slide No.: XZ-CU-201907171006. One paratype Tritonymph, the same data as for holotype, slide No.: XZ-CU-201907171007. All types are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, P. R. China (GUGC) (Zhang 2018).

Armascirus yulongensis Chen & Jin n. sp.

ZOOBANK: DC7BBC05-9287-4E3C-838E-CFA1A7A3697D

(Figures 9–13)

Diagnosis

The new species can be distinguished from other known species in the genus Armascirus by the presence of five pairs of genital setae and by c2, e1, f1, h1 and h2 situated on small platelets, so far, the only species with five pairs of genital setae in this genus.

Description

Female (two specimens, holotype and paratype; Figures 9–13)

Idiosoma long 667 (521), wide 515 (401).

Figure 9. Armascirus yulongensis Chen & Jin n. sp., female holotype: A, dorsal idiosoma; B, ventral idiosoma.

Figure 10. Armascirus yulongensis Chen & Jin n. sp., female holotype: A–C, dorsal idiosoma (photo); D, palp (photo).

Dorsum (Figures 9A, 10A–C) — Proterosomal shield 163 (165), long 238 (228) wide, and covered by reticulations, bearing two pairs of trichobothria (at and pt), two pairs of tactile setae (lps and mps), lps closer to pt than at. Propodosomal shield laterally flanked by longitudinal striae. Hysterosomal (median) shield inverted trapezoidal, 162 (150) long, 152 (158) wide, and covered by reticulations and with two pairs of simple setae (c1, d1); one pair of lateral plates 66 (57) long, 11 (13) wide and with reticulations; median shield flanked by longitudinal striae; five pairs of simple setae (c2, e1, f1, h1, h2) on small platelets, and one pair of lyrifissures (im) situated anterolaterally to f1. Setal lengths and distances: at 357 (356), pt 519 (484), lps 11 (12), mps 12 (10), c1 13 (16), c2 14 (13), d1 16 (14), e1 18 (17), f1 25 (27), h1 32 (32); at-at 34 (39), pt-pt 242 (213), lps-lps 227 (210), mps-mps 77 (73), lps-mps 88 (81), at-lps 141 (130), pt-mps 88 (75), pt-lps 36 (35), at-mps 145 (139), at-pt 165 (158), c1-c1 158 (152), c2-c2 285 (251), d1-d1 87 (101), e1-e1 91 (80), f1-f1 80 (72), h1-h1 43 (41) ,c1-c2 77 (55), c1-d1 88 (77), c2-d1 108 (83), d1-e1 78 (77), e1-f1 71 (54), f1-h1 63 (49). Anal region with two pairs of pseudanal setae (ps1–ps2), 18 (13) and 25 (14) in length, and one pair of lyrifissures (ih) close to ps2.

Figure 11. Armascirus yulongensis Chen & Jin n. sp., female holotype: A–D, ventral idiosoma (photo).

Venter (Figures 9B, 11A–D) — Ventral area between coxae I and the gnathosoma with transverse striae. Coxae I–IV with reticulations, area between coxae I–II plate groups with longitudinal striae; area between ppgs and hgs1 with longitudinal striae; areas between hgs1 and genital plates with transverse striae. Setal formula of coxal plates I–IV: 3(1ac)-2(2a, 2c)-3(3ac)-3(4ac) sts; one pair of propodogastral setae (ppgs), 19 (17) in length, and five pairs of hysterogastral setae (hgs1–hgs5), 28 (26), 26 (26), 32 (29), 26 (26) and 32 (30) in length. Genital plates with reticulations and papillae, two pairs of visible genital papillae and five pairs of genital setae (g1g5) that 24 (23), 24 (22), 24 (25), 24 (23), 30 (24) in length, respectively.

Figure 12. Armascirus yulongensis Chen & Jin n. sp., female holotype: A, palp; B, chelicerae; C, subcapitulum.

Gnathosoma (Figures 10D, 12A–C) — Palp (Figures 10D, 12A). Five-segmented, 448 (390) long, all segments with reticulations. Palp chaetotaxy: trochanter — none; basifemur — one dorsal simple seta; telofemur — one dorsal spine-like seta, one short pointed apophysis and one blunt apophysis; genu — two spine-like setae, two simple setae and one elongate pointed apophysis; tibiotarsus — three simple setae, one spine-like seta and one distal solenidion; claw well-developed. Chelicera (Figure 12B). 273 (250) long, with reticulations and papillae; cheliceral seta 18 (18) in length; chela developed. Subcapitulum (Figure 12C). 304 (265) long, 150 (148) wide; two pairs of short adoral setae, ads1–ads2, 15 (15) and 4 (4) in length; four pairs of hypostome setae, hg1–hg4, 24 (18), 33 (22), 11 (15) and 70 (60) in length, respectively. Area between hg1 and hg2 with papillae, between hg2 and the base with reticulation and close to the base with papillae. Distances of hg setae: hg1-hg1 9 (10), hg2-hg2 27 (22), hg3-hg3 39 (40), hg4-hg4 129 (113), hg1-hg2 52 (47), hg2-hg3 141 (123), hg3-hg4 57 (54).

Figure 13. Armascirus yulongensis Chen & Jin n. sp., female holotype: A–D, leg I–IV, respectively; female paratype: E, leg IV.

Legs (Figures 13A–E) — With reticulations, lengths of leg I–IV: 505 (463), 457 (415), 497 (477), ? (518); lengths of tarsus I–IV: 200 (185), 167 (151), 187 (180), ? (180). T on tibia IV ? (80) in length. Legs I–IV chaetotaxy: Coxae I–IV 3-2-3-3 sts; trochanters I–IV 1-1-2-1 sts; basifemora I–IV 5-5-4-2 sts; telofemora I–IV 4-4-4-4 sts. Genu I 1 asl, \{1 asl, 1 mst\}, \{1 asl, 1 mst\}, 4 sts; genu II 1 asl, 1 bsl, 5 sts; genu III 1 asl, 5 sts; genu IV 1 asl, 5 sts. Tibia I \{1 asl, 1 mst\}, 4 sts; tibia II 1 asl, 5 sts; tibia III 1 bsl, 5 sts; tibia IV 1 smooth T, 4 sts. Tarsus I 4 asl, 1 fam, 1 dtsl, 23 sts; tarsus II 1 bsl, 1 dtsl, 21 sts; tarsus III 19 sts; tarsus IV 19 sts.

Other developmental stages — Unknown.

Etymology

The new species name is derived from type locality Yulong Snow Mountain, Lijiang City, Yunnan Province, P. R. China.

Remarks

The new species is unique in the genus Armascirus with having five pairs of genital setae. It is similar to A. anastosi Smiley, 1992, but differs from the latter by the following characters: (1) five pairs of genital setae (vs. four in A. anastosi); (2) c2, e1, f1, h1 and h2 situated on small platelets (vs. on soft integument in A. anastosi); (3) tarsus I 23 sts (vs. 16 sts in A. anastosi); (4) tarsus II 21 sts (vs. 19 sts in A. anastosi); (5) tarsus III 19 sts (vs. 14 sts in A. anastosi); (6) tarsus IV 19 sts (vs. 13 sts in A. anastosi).

Type series

Holotype, female was collected from fallen leaves, Yulong Snow Mountain (N27°00′11″, E100°10′45″, elevation 3230 m), Lijiang City, Yunnan Province, P. R. China, on 1 September, 2018, by Jian-Xin Chen, slide No.: YN-CU-2018090101. One paratype female, the same data as for holotype, slide No.: YN-CU-2018090102. All types are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, P. R. China (GUGC) (Zhang 2018).

Discussion

Cunaxidae has been found on every continent except Antarctica and the genus Armascirus is also widely distributed (Smliey 1992; Skvarla et al. 2014) and is known from Guizhou, Sichuan, Shanghai, Fujian, Jiangsu, Beijing and Taiwan in China (Tseng 1980; Liang 1983; Bu & Li 1987; Hu 1997; Lin & Zhang 2000).

Altitudes for most species of this genus are not given. However, those recorded vary between 124 m to 1300 m (Kalúz & Vrabec 2013; Kalúz et al. 2014; Kalúz & Starý 2018). Armascirus apophysis Chen & Jin n. sp. was found at altitudes 2628 m and A. yulongensis Chen & Jin n. sp. at altitude 3230 m. This implies that members of this genus may be adaptable to all altitudes.

The following species and the two new species are only known from their type localities: A. denheyeri Kalùz, Ermilov & Vrabec, 2014, A. skvarlai Kalúz & Stary, 2018, A. raulzito Rocha, Argolo, Ferla & Oliveira, 2017, A. amazoriensis Wurlitzer & Silva, 2020, However, A. taurus (Kramer, 1881), A. fendai Kalúz & Vrabec, 2013, A. hastus Shiba, 1986 and A. bison (Berlese, 1888) were reported also from other localities.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31872275, 31272357).



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Date received:
2021-01-27
Date accepted:
2021-05-11
Date published:
2021-05-19

Edited by:
Faraji, Farid

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2021 Chen, Jian-Xin; Yi, Tian-Ci; Guo, Jian-Jun and Jin, Dao-Chao

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