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New records of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) of Grande Comore Island (Comoros Archipelago)

Kreiter, Serge 1; Payet, Rose-My 2; Mouigni, Hadji3; Douin, Martial4; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane 5 and Azali, Hamza Abdou6

1✉ Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro, UMR CBGP INRA/ IRD/ CIRAD/ IA( SupAgro), Université de Montpellier, 755 Avenue du Campus Agropolis (Baillarguet), CS 30016, 34988 Montferrier-sur-Lez cedex, France.
2CIRAD, Université de Montpellier, Unité Hortsys, Station de Bassin-Plat, 97410 Saint-Pierre, La Réunion, France.
3INRAPE, Moroni, Grande Comore, Union des Comores
4Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro, UMR CBGP INRA/ IRD/ CIRAD/ IA( SupAgro), Université de Montpellier, 755 Avenue du Campus Agropolis (Baillarguet), CS 30016, 34988 Montferrier-sur-Lez cedex, France.
5Institut Agro - Montpellier SupAgro, UMR CBGP INRA/ IRD/ CIRAD/ IA( SupAgro), Université de Montpellier, 755 Avenue du Campus Agropolis (Baillarguet), CS 30016, 34988 Montferrier-sur-Lez cedex, France.
6INRAPE, Moroni, Grande Comore, Union des Comores

2021 - Volume: 61 Issue: 2 pages: 241-273

https://doi.org/10.24349/acarologia/20214429

Original research

Keywords

survey collection taxonomy systematics predatory mites

Abstract

Grande Comore is the larger Island of the four main islands constituting Comoros Archipelago. It is the fourth Island starting from Madagascar after Mayotte, Anjouan and Mohéli and closer to the African coast (Mozambique and Tanzania). So far, only five species of the mite family Phytoseiidae had been reported from this island. We report in this paper the results of a survey conducted at the end of 2018 in Grande Comore Island, in which 29 species have been recorded.


Introduction

Mites of the family Phytoseiidae are all predatory species on phytophagous mites and small insects like thrips and whiteflies, on commercial plants and the wild vegetation. Several species are biological control agents for the control of pest organisms in both open and protected crops all around the world (McMurtry and Croft 1997; McMurtry et al. 2013; Knapp et al. 2018).

This family is widespread around the world, present on all continents except Antarctica, and consists of about 2,500 valid species in 94 genera and three subfamilies (Demite et al. 2021).

Biodiversity surveys in poorly investigated areas is still an urgent need and might result in the discovery of additional species potentially useful for biological control as well as having more information on the biodiversity of these areas (Kreiter et al. 2018a, b, c, 2020a, b, c, d, 2021a, b, c; Kreiter and Abo-Shnaf 2020a, b).

In these perspectives, the more interesting areas are probably those with a high level of biodiversity. Most of the Indian Ocean constitutes one of the highest world biodiversity areas, those areas being called hotspots, concept defined by Myers (1988) in order to identify the most immediately important areas for biodiversity conservation. The common characteristics of these hotspots is that they hold high endemism levels and have lost at least 70% of their original natural vegetation (Myers et al. 2000). Knowledge of the phytoseiid diversity in these high interest areas in the context of global climate changes may contribute to identify potential biological control agents (BCA) and future establishment of conservation programs.

Located in the Indian Ocean at about 1,000 km from the northern coast of Madagascar, about only 70 km from Mohéli Islands and 300 kms from Mozambique coast in the Africa continent, Grande Comore (Ngazidja in Shicomori language) Island is one of the four main islands constituting Comoros Archipelago, with Mayotte, Anjouan and Mohéli and the largest of the four with more than 1,000 km².

Only five phytoseiid species are known from this island (Kreiter et al. 2018b), namely: Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant), Euseius baetae (Meyer and Rodrigues), Iphiseius degenerans (Berlese), Neoseiulus longispinosus (Evans) and Phytoseius amba (Pritchard and Baker).

The objective of this paper is to present the phytoseiid species reported in a survey conducted in December 2018 in Grande Comore Island.

Material and methods

The survey took place in Grande Comore from 6 to 11th of December, 2018. Plant inhabiting mites were collected from cultivated and wild plants in few locations mainly in the eastern and southern parts of the island.

Mites were directly collected on leaves with a fine brush with or without a pocket lens or a stereoscopic microscope when available (large leaves and herbaceous plants) or by beating the plants (mainly shrubs and trees with very small or spiny leaves) and collecting the mites in a black plastic rectangular saucer 45 x 30 cm (Ref. STR 45, BHR, 71370 Saint-Germain-du-Plain, France). Collected mites were then transferred with a fine brush into small plastic vials containing 1.5 ml of 70% ethanol.

The mites were then all slide-mounted in Hoyer's medium (Walter and Krantz 2009), the slides were dried at 45-50oC for at least two weeks and then all examined and identified using a phase and interferential contrast microscope (DMLB, Leica Microsystèmes SAS, Nanterre, France). Characters of specimens were measured using a graded eyepiece (Leica, see above).

Chant and McMurtry's (1994, 2007) concepts of the taxonomy of the family Phytoseiidae for identification and the world catalogue database of Demite et al. (2014, 2021) for distribution and information on descriptions and re-descriptions were used. World distribution indicated for each species is the world distribution prior to tthis study. The setal nomenclature system adopted was that of Lindquist & Evans (1965) and Lindquist (1994) as adapted by Rowell et al. (1978) and Chant & Yoshida-Shaul (1989) for the dorsal surface and by Chant & Yoshida-Shaul (1991) for the ventral surface. Pore (= solenostome) and poroid (= lyrifissure) notations are that of Athias-Henriot (1975). Macrosetal notation (Sge = genual macroseta; Sti = tibial macroseta; St = tarsal macroseta) are that of Muma and Denmark (1970). Numbers of teeth on the fixed and movable cheliceral digits do not include the respective apical teeth. Setae not referred to in Results section should be considered as absent. All measurements are given in micrometres (µm) and presented with the mean in bold followed by the range in parenthesis. Type of spermatheca or insemination apparatus are that of Denmark and Evans (2011). Only some species with only few measurements mentioned in the literature are provided in this paper. Classification of plants follows the APG IV classification of 2016 (ex. Byng et al. 2018).

Specimens of each species are deposited in the mite collections of Montpellier SupAgro conserved in UMR CBGP INRA/IRD/CIRAD/SupAgro/University of Montpellier.

The following abbreviations are used in this paper for morphological characters: dsl = dorsal shield length just above j1 to just below J5 in the middle line; dsw = dorsal shield width at the level of s4; Z4 ser., Z5 ser. = Z4, Z5 serrated (if Z4 and Z5 without ser. = not serrated); gensl = genital shield length; gensw st5 = genital shield width at level of steae st5; gensw post. cor. = genital shield width at level of posterior corners; lisl = primary or largest inguinal sigilla (= ''metapodal plate'') length; lisw = primary or largest inguinal sigilla (= ''metapodal plate'') width; sisl = secondary or smallest inguinal sigilla (= ''metapodal plate'') length; vsl = ventrianal shield length; gv3 – gv3 = distance between centres of solenostomes gv3 on the ventrianal shield; vsw ZV2 & vsw anus = ventrianal shield width at ZV2 level and at paranal setae level; scl: calyx total length; scw = calyx widest width; Fdl = fixed digit length; Mdl = movable digit length; Nb teeth Fd = number of teeth on the fixed digit; Nb teeth Md = number of teeth on the movable digit; Shaft = length of the shaft of spermatodactyl; toe = length of the toe; BCA = Biological control agent; aasl = altitude above sea level; imm.: immature.

The following abbreviations are used in this paper for institutions: CBGP = Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations; CIRAD = Centre International de Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement; IA = Institut Agro; INRAE = Institut National de Recherche pour l'Agriculture, l'Alimentation et l'Environnement; INRAPE = Institut National de Recherche pour l'Agriculture, la Pêche et L'Environnement; IRD = Institut de Recherche pour le Développement; MSA = Montpellier SupAgro, France; UMR = Unité Mixte de Recherche; UR = Unité de Recherche.

Results and discussion

A total of 29 species had been found during this study, 25 presented thereafter (two new species, one Amblyseius n. sp. of the Tribe Amblyseiini and one Ueckermannseius n. sp. of the Tribe Euseiini, will be described in a following paper. One male of Aristadromips sp. and 1 male of Neoseiulus sp. were collected alone without any females, are both impossible to identify (probably males of undescribed species as they do not correspond to any male of described species) and are not presented in this paper. Eight species have new measurements compared to only few references already available in the literature.

Subfamily Amblyseiinae Muma

Amblyseiinae Muma 1961: 273.

Tribe Neoseiulini Chant & McMurtry

Neoseiulini Chant & McMurtry 2003a: 6.

Genus Neoseiulus Hughes

Neoseiulus Hughes 1948: 141.

Neoseiulus teke (Pritchard & Baker)

Amblyseius (Amblyseius) teke Pritchard & Baker 1962: 239.

Amblyseius teke, Meyer & Rodrigues 1966: 30, Moraes et al. 1989a: 83, 1989b: 97.

Neoseiulus teke, Moraes et al. 1986: 98, 2004b: 147, Chant & McMurtry 2003a: 37, 2007: 31.

Amblyseius (Amblyseius) bibens Blommers 1973: 111 (synonymy according to Ueckermann & Loots 1988).

Neoseiulus teke belongs to the barkeri species group and the womersleyi species subgroup (Chant and McMurtry 2003a). This species is found in sub-Saharan Africa often associated with Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), the cassava green mite (CGM). It has been studied for its potential as BCA against the CGM. Nwilene and Nachman (1996) studied its reproduction characteristics on M. tanajoa. It was more efficient than I. degenerans, but seems not efficient enough in field conditions (Nwilene and Nachman 1996).

World distribution: Burundi, DR Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mayotte Island, Mohéli Island, Mozambique, La Réunion Island, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe.

Specimens examined: three specimens (2 ♀♀ and 1 imm.) collected during this study. Moroni (171 m aasl, lat. 11°40'47'' S, long. 43°16'27'' E), 1 ♀ on Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), 9/XII/2018; Mdé, INRAPE (51 m aasl, lat. 11°44'12'' S, long. 43°14'59'' E), 1 ♀ on Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and 1 imm. on Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae), 11/XII/2018.

Remarks: measurements of morphological characters of N. teke female and male specimens from Grande Comore Island are very close to measurements of specimens from neighbouring countries, especially from specimens from La Réunion (Quilici et al. 2000; Kreiter et al. 2020d), Mayotte (Kreiter et al. 2020a) and Mohéli (Kreiter et al. 2021b) Islands and from specimens of various countries in Africa, except for the holotype (Zannou et al. 2006) and specimens from South Africa which are larger (van der Merwe 1965).

Tribe Kampimodromini Kolodochka

Kampimodromini Kolodochka 1998: 59, Chant & McMurtry 2003b: 189, 2006: 137, 2007: 33.

Subtribe Kampimodromina Chant & McMurtry

Paraphytoseiina Chant & McMurtry 2003b: 193.

Genus Okiseius Ehara

Okiseius Ehara 1967: 77

Okiseius subtropicus Ehara

Okiseius subtropicus Ehara 1967: 77, 1975: 33, Ehara & Hamaoka 1980: 6, Wu & Qian 1983: 75, Moraes et al. 1986: 102, 2004b: 155, Corpuz-Raros & Garcia 1994: 366, Ehara et al. 1994: 136, Wu et al. 1997: 142, Chant & McMurtry 2003b: 202, 2007: 43.

Platyseiella (Noeledius) subtropicus, Tseng 1976: 102.

Proprioseius (Okiseius) subtropicus, Karg 1983: 302.

Amblyseius (Kampimodromos) subtropicus, Ueckermann & Loots 1985: 195.

Amblyseius subtropicus, Chant & Yoshida-Shaul 1989: 1020.

Okiseius (Okiseius) subtropicus, Kolodochka & Denmark 1996: 235.

Amblyseius (Okiseius) subtropicus, Ehara & Amano 1998: 45.

Okiseius wui Denmark & Kolodochka in Kolodocka & Denmark 1996: 235 (synonymy according to Walter 1999).

There are 17 species in the genus Okiseius (Chant and McMurtry 2003b, 2007) divided in two species group based on the situation of seta R1, on of off dorsal shield, the subtropicus and the maritimus species groups. With setae R1 inserted on the dorsal shield of females, O. subtropicus belongs to the first one. Nothing is known about the biology of this species. This is the first record of O. subtropicus outside Asia and Oceania. This species is reported to be a predator of the eriophyoid mites Aculops pelekassi (Keifer) on citrus in Japan (Ehara et al. 1994) and Phyllocoptruta oleivora in China (Yang 1986). Although originally described from a single adult female mite from Okinawa Island (Ehara 1967), O. subtropicus is now known from Japan (Honshu) (Ehara and Hamaoka 1980; Ehara et al. 1994), China (Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi) (Wu et al. 1997), Taiwan (Tseng 1976), the Philippines (Leyete) (Corpuz-Raros & Garcia 1994), Russia (Kolodochka and Denmark 1996; Wu et al. 1997), and Australia (Walter 1999).

World distribution: Australia, China, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan.

Specimens examined: five specimens (4 ♀♀ and 1 ♂) collected during this study.Moroni, Le Kalyptus Hotel (24 m aasl, lat. 11°40'58'' S, long. 43°15'45'' E), 3 ♀♀ and 1 ♂ on Lantana camara L. (Verbenacae) with eriophyid galls and 1 ♀ on Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanacae), 7/XII/2018.

Remarks: measurements of morphological characters of O. subtropicus female and male specimens from Grande Comore Island (Tables 1 and 2) are very close to measurements of specimens from countries of South-East and Eastern Asia (China, Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, Philippines) and specimens from Australia.

Table 1. Character measurements of adult females of Okiseius subtropicus collected in this study with those obtained from previous studies (localities followed by the number of specimens measured between brackets).

Table 2. Character measurements of an adult male of Okiseius subtropicus collected in this study with those obtained from previous studies (localities followed by the number of specimens measured between brackets).

Subtribe Paraphytoseiina Chant & McMurtry

Paraphytoseiina Chant & McMurtry 2003b: 211.

Genus Paraphytoseius Swirskii & Shechter

Paraphytoseius Swirski & Shechter 1961: 113, Moraes et al. 1986: 104, 2004b: 160; Chant & McMurtry 2003b: 216, 2007: 49.

Paraphytoseius horrifer (Pritchard & Baker)

Amblyseius (Ptenoseius) horrifer Pritchard & Baker 1962: 295.

Amblyseius horrifer, Meyer & Rodrigues 1966: 30.

Amblyseius (Paraphytoseius) horrifer, van der Merwe 1968: 169.

Proprioseius (Paraphytoseius) horrifer, Karg 1983: 302.

Paraphytoseius horrifer, Moraes et al. 1986: 105, 2004b: 161, Beard 2001: 84, Chant & McMurtry 2003a: 37, 2007: 53.

In all our specimens of Paraphytoseius, setae S5 are absent. So according to Chant and McMurtry (2003b), they belong to the orientalis species group. As the previous authors, and Moraes et al. (2007b), we also recognise P. horrifer and P. orientalis as two valid species. Our specimens with longer setae s4, Z4, Z5, and with no distinctly short, thick, spatulate macroseta on genu I belongs to the former species. This species is widely distributed in Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar. The biology of P. horrifer remains totally unknown. It was mentioned recently for the first from several countries: Mauritius (Kreiter and Abo-Shnaf 2020b), La Réunion (Kreiter et al. 2020c), Rodrigues (Kreiter and Abo-Shnaf 2020a) and Vietnam (Kreiter et al. 2020b).

World distribution: Benin, DR Congo, Ghana, India, Kenya, La Réunion Island, Madagascar Island, Malawi, Mauritius Island, Mayotte Island, Mozambique, Reunion Island, Rodrigues Island, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda, Vietnam.

Specimens examined: 5 specimens (4 ♀♀ and 1 ♂) collected during this study. Mvouni, University of Comoros (434 m aasl, lat. 11°43'11'' S, long. 43°16'31'' E), 1 ♀ on Rubus rosifolius Smith (Rosaceae), 6/XII/2018; Moroni, Le Kalyptus Hotel (24 m aasl, lat. 11°40'58'' S, long. 43°15'45'' E), 2 ♀♀ on Annona senegalensis Persoon (Annonacae), 7/XII/2018; Djoumoichongo (230 m aasl, lat. 11°48'34'' S, long. 43°17'37'' E), 1 ♀ and 1 ♂ on Occimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae), 10/XII/2018.

Remarks: morphological and morphometric characters and all measurements fit well measurements from Kreiter et al. (2020b, c, d, Kreiter et al. 2021a). This species described from Africa (Pritchard and Baker 1962) was first mentioned in the Indian Ocean from La Réunion Island (Kreiter et al. 2020d) but is also present in Rodrigues, Mauritius, Mayotte and Anjouan Islands (Kreiter and Abo-Shnaf 2020a, b, Kreiter et al. 2020a, Kreiter et al. 2021a). It was the more abundant species in Anjouan Island (Kreiter et al. 2021a).

Paraphytoseius orientalis (Narayanan, Kaur & Ghai)

Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) orientalis Narayanan, Kaur & Ghai 1960: 394.

Paraphytoseius orientalis, Moraes et al. 1986: 105, 2004b: 162, Chant & McMurtry 2003b: 220, 2007: 53.

Amblyseius ipomeai, Narayanan, Kaur & Ghai 1960: 394 (synonymy according to El-Banhawy 1984).

Paraphytoseius multidentatus, Swirski & Shechter 1961: 114 (synonymy according to Matthysse & Denmark 1981 in Denmark et al. 1999).

Paraphytoseius narayanani, Ehara 1967: 67 (synonymy according to Ehara & Ghai, in Ehara 1967).

This species belongs to the orientalis species group (Chant and McMurtry 2003b). Our specimens with relatively shorter setae s4, Z4 and Z5, having a distinctly short, thick, spatulate macroseta on genu I belong to the species P. orientalis. This species is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas in South America, Africa and Asia. It belongs to a genus included in the large polyphagous generalist group named type III phytoseiid mites (McMurtry and Croft 1997; McMurtry et al. 2013). Navasero and Navasero (2016) had studied the life history of P. orientalis on the broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) (Banks) as prey and reported high predation rates on the eggs of P. latus, suggesting good potential for the control of this pest.

World distribution: Argentina, Brazil, Burundi, India, Japan, Kenya, La Réunion Island, Madagascar Island, Martinique Island, Mauritius Island, Mayotte Island, Mozambique, Reunion Island, Rwanda, Vietnam.

Specimens examined: 10 specimens (6 ♀♀, 1 ♂ and 3 imm.) collected during this study. Moroni, Le Kalyptus Hotel (24 m aasl, lat. 11°40'58'' S, long. 43°15'45'' E), 1 ♂ and 3 ♀♀ on Lantana camara L. (Verbenacae) with eriophyid galls, 7/XII/2018; Moroni (51 m aasl, lat. 11°41'01'' S, long. 43°15'55'' E), 1 ♀ and 2 imm. on Averrhoa bilimbi L. (Oxalidaceae), 9/XII/2018; Djoumoichongo (230 m aasl, lat. 11°48'34'' S, long. 43°17'37'' E), 1 imm. on Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) and 2 ♀♀ on Occimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae), 10/XII/2018.

Remarks: morphological and morphometric characters and all measurements fit well measurements in Ferragut and Baumann (2019) and Kreiter et al. (2020b, d, 2021 b). This species was described from Asia (Narayanan et al. 1960) and present also in Mauritius (Ferragut and Baumann 2019; Kreiter et al. 2018a; Kreiter and Abo-Shnaf 2020b), Mayotte (Kreiter et al. 2020a), Vietnam (Kreiter et al. 2020b), La Réunion Island (Kreiter et al. 2020d) and Mohéli Island (Kreiter et al. 2021b).

Tribe Typhlodromipsini Chant & McMurtry

Typhlodromipsini Chant & McMurtry 2005c: 318.

Genus Typlodromips De Leon

Typhlodromips De Leon 1965: 23, Chant & McMurtry 2007: 61.

Typhlodromips shi (Pritchard & Baker)

Amblyseius (Amblyseius) shi Pritchard & Baker 1962: 252.

Typhlodromips shi, Moraes et al. 1986: 147, 2004: 224, Chant & McMurtry 2005c: 327, 2007: 63.

Typhlodromips ivoloinae Blommers 1974: 146 (synonymy according to Ueckermann & Loots 1988).

This species belongs to the culmulus species group of the genus Typhlodromips with nine other species. It was described under the name ivoloinae by Blommers (1974) from Madagascar on Citrus lemon (L.) Burman (Rutaceae). Mayotte Island is approximately 340 km away from the Madagascar coast and it is not surprising to find this species on a close by island. But Grand Comore is further from Madagascar but closer to Mozambique than Mayotte. The species was not reported from Mascareignes Archipelago. Its biology is totally unknown.

World distribution: Angola, Benin, Cameroon, DR Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mayotte Island, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone.

Specimens examined: 19 specimens (10 ♀♀, 3 ♂♂) collected during this study. Mvouni, University of Comoros (434 m aasl, lat. 11°43'11'' S, long. 43°16'31'' E), 4 ♀♀ Stachytarpheta jamaicensis L. (Vahl (Verbenaceae) and 2 ♀♀ on Rubus rosifolius Smith (Rosaceae) and 1 ♀ on Clidemia hirta L. (Melastomataceae), 6/XII/2018; Djoumoichongo (230 m aasl, lat. 11°48'34'' S, long. 43°17'37'' E), 3 ♂♂ and 3 ♀♀ on Tristemma mauritianum L. (Melastomataceae), 10/XII/2018.

Remarks: morphological and morphometric characters and all measurements (Tables 3 and 4) fit well with those provided in the literature, except for s4 and Z4 for females which are longer in specimens from Grande Comore and s4, Z4 and macrosetae of leg IV which are also longer in specimens collected during this study. The presence of this species on Madagascar and Mayotte Island (Kreiter et al. 2020a) makes Grande Comore the third island of the Indian Ocean known for hosting this species.

Table 3. Character measurements of adult females of Typhlodromips shi collected in this study with those in previous studies (localities followed by the number of specimens measured between brackets).

Table 4. Character measurements of an adult male of Typhlodromips shi collected in this study with those in previous studies (localities followed by the number of specimens measured between brackets).

Tribe Amblyseiini Muma

Amblyseiinae Muma 1961: 273 and Amblyseiini Muma, Wainstein 1962: 26.

Subtribe Amblyseiina Muma

Amblyseiina Muma, Chant & McMurtry 2004: 179.

Genus Amblyseius Berlese

Amblyseius Berlese 1914: 143.

Amblyseius duplicesetus Moraes & McMurtry

Amblyseius duplicesetus Moraes & McMurtry 1988: 13, Moraes et al. 2004a: 143, 2004b: 22, Zannou et al. 2007: 10, El-Banhawy & Knapp 2011: 25.

Amblyseius duplicisetus [sic], Chant & McMurtry 2004a: 208, 2007: 78.

This species belongs to the largoensis species group as setae J2 and Z1 are present, setae s4 are minute and the ventrianal shield of the female is vase-shaped. It belongs to the largoensis species subgroup as setae Z4 are long, spermatheca has the calyx elongate and the female ventrianal shield is entire (Chant and McMurtry 2004, 2007).

It was described from Kenya (Moraes and McMurtry 1988; Zannou et al. 2007; El-Banhawy and Knapp 2011) and more recently reported from Sri Lanka (Moraes et al. 2004a), its biology is totally unknown. This is the third mention of that species in Indian Ocean Islands after Anjouan and Mohéli Islands (Kreiter et al. 2021a, b).

World distribution: Ajouan Island, Kenya, Mohéli Island, Sri Lanka.

Specimens examined: 40 specimens (23 ♀♀, 7 ♂♂ and 10 imm.) collected during this study. Mdé, INRAPE (51 m aasl, lat. 11°44'12'' S, long. 43°14'59'' E), 3 ♀♀ and 1 imm. on Acacia mangium Willdenow (Mimosaceae), 1 imm. on Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), 1 ♀ on Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamarck (Moraceae), 1 ♀ on Clerodendrum speciosissimum Van Geert ex. Morren (Verbenaceae), 2 ♀♀ and 1 imm. on Theobroma cacao L. (Malvaceae) and 1 ♂ and 2 ♀♀ on Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), 6/XII/2018; Mvouni, University of Comoros (434 m aasl, lat. 11°43'11'' S, long. 43°16'31'' E), 1 ♂, 3 ♀♀ and 1 imm. on Myristica fragans Houttuyn (Myristicaceae), 1 ♂, 1 ♀ and 1 imm. on Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), 6/XII/2018; Dzahani, village (209 m aasl, lat. 11°46'32'' S, long. 43°16'40'' E), 1 ♂ on Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae), 1 ♂ on Artocarpus altilis Parkinson Fosberg (Moraceae) and 2 ♀♀ on Cananga odorata (Lamarck) Hooker and Thomson (Annonaceae), 7/XII/2018; Djoumoichongo (230 m aasl, lat. 11°48'34'' S, long. 43°17'37'' E), 1 ♀ on C. sinensis, 1 ♀ and 1 imm. on A. altilis and 2 imm. on Clidemia hirta (L.) Don (Melastomataceae), 10/XII/2018; Mdjoiyezi (230 m aasl, lat. 11°50'19'' S, long. 43°18'29'' E), 1 ♀ on Vitex doniana Sweet (Lamiaceae) and 1 ♂, 4 ♀♀ and 1 imm. on M. indica, 10/XII/2018; Mdé, INRAPE (51 m aasl, lat. 11°44'12'' S, long. 43°14'59'' E), 1 ♀ and 1 imm. on an unknown host plant, 1 ♂ and 1 imm. on Spondias dulcis Solander ex. Parkinson (Anacardiaceae), 1 imm. on Bombacopsis glabra Pasquale (Bombacaceae) and 1 imm. on Psidium gujava L. (Myrtaceae), 11/XII/2018.

Remarks: this is the more abundant species found in several sites. All measurement values fit well those already published on this species with only very slight variations (Moraes and McMurtry 1988; Moraes et al. 2004a; Zannou et al. 2007; El-Banhawy and Knapp 2011; Kreiter et al. 2021a, b). Measurement values of female specimens of Grande Comore are very similar to values for specimens from Kenya and Sri Lanka, however with some shorter setae in specimens of Anjouan and Mohéli Islands (Kreiter et al. 2021a, b). The male of that species will be redescribed in a following paper.

Amblyseius largoensis (Muma)

Amblyseiopsis largoensis Muma 1955: 266.

Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) largoensis, Chant 1959: 96.

Amblyseius (Amblyseialus) largoensis, Muma 1961: 287.

Typhlodromus largoensis, Hirschmann 1962: 2.

Amblyseius (Amblyseius) largoensis, Ehara 1966: 22.

Amblyseius largoensis, Swirski & Golan 1967: 225, Moraes et al. 1986: 17, 2004b: 33, Chant & McMurtry 2004: 208, 2007: 78.

Amblyseius magnolia Muma 1961: 289 (synonymy by Denmark & Evans 2011).

Amblyseius sakalava Blommers 1976: 96 (synonymy by Ueckermann & Loots 1988).

Amblyseius amtalaensis Gupta 1977: 53 (synonymy by Gupta 1986).

Like the previous species, A. largoensis belongs to the largoensis species group and to the largoensis species subgroup (Chant and McMurtry 2004).

It is widespread in all tropical and subtropical regions of the world and was the most abundant species collected by Moraes et al. (2000) in French Caribbean Islands and as a potential BCA of Raoiella indica Hirst in La Réunion Island (Moraes et al. 2012). Using morphometric analyses of 36 characters, molecular analyses and crossing tests, Navia et al. (2014) studied specimens collected in Brazil, La Réunion Island and Trinidad and Tobago to determine whether A. largoensis populations from different geographic origins belong to the same taxonomic entity. Though differences in the lengths of some setae were observed, molecular analyses and crossing experiments indicated that populations from Indian Ocean and Caribean were conspecific. This species was previously recorded from Mauritius Island by Ferragut and Baumann (2019) and Kreiter and Abo-Shnaf (2020b), from Rodrigues Island by Kreiter and Abo-Shnaf (2020a), from Mayotte Island by Kreiter et al. (2020a) and Anjouan and Mohéli Islands (Kreiter et al. 2021a; Kreiter et al., 2021b).

World distribution: this species is widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Americas, Asia and the Pacific Islands. It is also present in several Islands of the Indian Ocean (Rodrigues Island, Mauritius Island, Mayotte Island, Anjouan Island and Mohéli Island).

Specimens examined: 3 specimens (1 ♀ and 2 ♂♂) collected during this study. Moroni (171 m aasl, lat. 11°40'47'' S, long. 43°16'27'' E), 1 ♀ and 1 ♂ on Clidemia hirta (L.) Don (Melastomataceae) and 1 ♂ on Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), 9/XII/2018.

Remarks: morphological and morphometric characters and all measurements of the Grande Comore specimens fit well with those given for specimens from Africa, Brazil, La Réunion, Trinidad & Tobago, Mauritius Island, Rodrigues Island, Mayotte Island, Anjouan Island and from Mohéli Island (Zannou et al. 2007; Navia et al. 2014; Ferragut & Baumann 2019; Kreiter and Abo-Shnaf 2020a, 2020b; Kreiter et al. 2020a, 2021a, 2021b).

Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant)

Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) herbicolus Chant 1959: 84.

Amblyseius (Amblyseius) herbicolus, Muma 1961: 287.

Typhlodromus herbicolus, Hirschmann 1962: 23.

Amblyseius herbicolus, Moraes et al. 1986: 14, 1989a: 79, 2004b: 27, Chant & McMurtry 2004: 208, 2007: 78.

Amblyseius impactus Chaudhri 1968: 553 (synonymy according to Daneshvar & Denmark 1982).

Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) amitae Bhattacharyya 1968: 677 (synonymy according to Denmark & Muma 1989).

Amblyseius deleoni Muma & Denmark 1970: 68 (synonymy according to Daneshvar & Denmark 1982).

Amblyseius giganticus Gupta 1981: 33 (synonymy according to Gupta 1986).

Amblyseius (Amblyseialus) thermophilus Karg 1991: 12 (synonymy according to El-Banhawy & Knapp 2011).

Like the two previous species, A. herbicolus belongs also to the largoensis species group and to the largoensis species subgroup (Chant and McMurtry 2004).

Amblyseius herbicolus is widespread in all tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is the second most abundant phytoseiid mites on Coffea arabica L. in Brazil, associated with Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes), vector of the coffee ring spot virus and it was found to be an efficient predator (Reis et al. 2007). Amblyseius herbicolus is also found associated with the broad mite, P. latus, in crops such as chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Brazil and has also a good potential for controlling the pest. Rodriguez-Cruz et al. (2013) had studied biological, reproductive and life table parameters of A. herbicolus on three different diets: broad mites, castor bean pollen (Ricinus communis L.) and sun hemp pollen (Crotalaria juncea L.). The predator was able to develop and reproduce on all these three diets. However, its intrinsic growth rate was higher on broad mites and castor bean pollen. Feeding on alternative food such as pollen can facilitate the predator's mass rearing and maintain its population on crops when prey is absent or scarce. Many polyphagous generalist phytoseiid mites are important natural enemies because they can feed on plant provided pollen and various prey species, and thus persist in crops even in the absence of target pests (McMurtry et al. 2013). Hence, populations of these predators can be established in a crop by providing alternative food, thus increasing biological control. Alternative food affects P. latus control on chilli pepper plants by predatory mites (Duarte et al. 2015). Amblyseius herbicolus had high oviposition and population growth rates when fed with cattail pollen (Typha latifolia L.), chilli pepper pollen and bee-collected pollen, and a low rate on the alternative prey (Tetranychus urticae Koch). Supplementing pepper plants with pollen resulted in better control of broad mite populations (Duarte et al. 2015). Release of A. herbicolus on young plants with a weekly addition of honeybee pollen or cattail pollen until plants produce flowers seems a viable strategy to sustain populations of this predator (Duarte et al. 2015).

World distribution: Anjouan Island, Argentina, Australia, Azores, Benin, Brazil, Burundi, Canary Islands, China, Colombia, Grande Comore Island, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Dr Congo, El Salvador, Ghana, Guadeloupe Island, Guatemala, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Iran, Kenya, Les Saintes, La Réunion and Madagascar Islands, Malawi, Malaysia, Martinique Island, Mauritius Island, Mohéli Island, New Caledonia Island, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues Island, Rwanda, Senegal, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, USA, Venezuela, West Indies.

Specimens examined: two specimens (2 ♀♀) collected during this study. Ivembeni, Banda Samlini (791 m aasl, lat. 11°29'22'' S, long. 43°19'36'' E), 2 ♀♀ on Rubus rosifolius Smith (Rosaceae), 7/XII/2018.

Remarks: morphological and morphometric characters and all measurements fit well with measurements provided in Kreiter et al. (2018b, 2020c, d, 2021a, b) and Kreiter and Abo-Shnaf (2020a, b). Amblyseius herbicolus was previously recorded in many countries of the world and especially in French West Indies (Moraes et al. 2000, Kreiter et al. 2006). It was first reported by Kreiter et al. (2018b) in the Comoros Archipelago in Grande Comore Island with two females collected. Amblyseius herbicolus was reported in the past from La Réunion Island with only few specimens (Quilici et al. 1997, 2000) and more recently many specimens (Kreiter et al. 2020d). It is also reported recently from Vietnam (Kreiter et al. 2020c), Rodrigues and Maurice Islands (Kreiter and Abo-Shnaf 2020a, b) but only from females. Males were however found among several females in Mohéli and will be redescribed in a following paper.

Amblyseius parasundi Blommers

Amblyseius (Proprioseiopsis) parasundi Blommers 1974: 144.

Amblyseius parasundi, Moraes et al. 1986: 27, 2004b: 46.

Amblyseius (Amblyseius) parasundi, Denmark & Muma 1989: 19.

This species has no setae Z1 and consequently belongs to the sundi species group and by having the spermatheca elongate, tub-like, to the sundi species subgroup. Although it was mentioned as abundant on fruit trees in Madagascar preying on tetranychid mites (Blommers and Gutierrez 1975), its biology is still not known.

World distribution: Madagascar Island, Mayotte Island.

Specimens examined: seven specimens (4 ♀♀ and 3 imm.) collected during this study. Mvouni, University of Comoros (434 m aasl, lat. 11°43'11'' S, long. 43°16'31'' E), 1 ♀ on Litchi sinensis Sonnerat (Sapindaceae) and 1 ♀ and 2 imm. on Clidemia hirta L. (Melastomataceae), 6/XII/2018; Ivembeni, Banda Samlini (791 m aasl, lat. 11°29'22'' S, long. 43°19'36'' E), 1 ♀ on Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), 7/XII/2018; Djoumoichongo (230 m aasl, lat. 11°48'34'' S, long. 43°17'37'' E), 1 ♀ on Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and 1 imm. on Cyathea sp. (Chyteaceae), 10/XII/2018.

Remarks: morphological and morphometric characters and all measurements fit quite well with few measurement values from the literature (Blommers 1974, Denmark and Muma 1989) and from specimens from Mayotte Island (Kreiter et al. 2020a). Amblyseius parasundi is reported by Blommers (1974) as being a thelytokous species in mass-rearing and field collected specimens and this information is also mentioned in Denmark and Muma (1989). Actually, no males were collected in Grande Comore but 4 males were collected in Mayotte Island (Kreiter et al. 2020a) and will be described in a following paper.

Subtribe Proprioseiopsina Chant & McMurtry

Proprioseiopsina Chant & McMurtry, 2004: 219.

Genus Proprioseiopsis Muma

Proprioseiopsis Muma 1961: 277.

Proprioseiopsis ovatus (Garman)

Amblyseiopsis ovatus Garman 1958: 78.

Typhlodromus (Amblyseius) ovatus, Chant 1959: 90.

Amblyseiulus ovatus, Muma 1961: 278.

Typhlodromus ovatus, Hirschmann 1962: 2.

Proprioseiopsis ovatus, Moraes et al. 1986: 121, 2004b: 184, Chant & McMurtry 2005a: 15, 2007: 89.

Proprioseiopsis (Proprioseiopsis) ovatus, Karg 1989: 208.

Proprioseiopsis cannaensis (Muma 1962): 4 (synonymy according to Denmark & Evans 2011).

Proprioseiopsis peltatus (van der Merwe: 1968): 119 (synonymy according to Tseng 1983).

Proprioseiopsis hudsonianus (Chant & Hansell 1971): 723 (synonymy according to Denmark & Evans).

Proprioseiopsis parapeltatus (Wu & Chou 1981): 274 (synonymy according to Tseng 1983).

Proprioseiopsis antonelli Congdon 2002: 15 (synonymy according to Denmark & Evans 2011).

Proprioseiopsis ovatus belongs to the belizensis species group as genu I has no macrosetae. As the spermatheca of that species is saccular, it belongs to the belizensis species subgroup (Chant and McMurtry 2005a). This species is known from Guadeloupe, Marie-Galante and Martinique (Kreiter and Moraes 1997; Moraes et al. 2000; Mailloux et al. 2010; Kreiter et al. 2018c). It was found in very high numbers only during a previous study on companion plant in Guadeloupe (Mailloux et al. 2010) and in a recent study in La Réunion (Le Bellec, unpub. data). Proprioseiopsis mexicanus, and P. ovatus seems to be abundant on weeds in the lower vegetation (Mailloux et al. 2010; Kreiter et al. 2018c). Denmark and Evans (2011) indicated that this species is associated with Oligonychus pratensis (Banks) and Brevipalpus spp. It was also found in association with Tetranychus evansi Baker and Pritchard (Furtado et al. 2014) but mentioned as an ineffective predator of that species. Despite this information, the biology of P. ovatus remains unknown.

World distribution: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Hawaii, Honduras, Japan, Malaysia, Martinique Island, Mayotte Island, Mozambique, Peru, Phiippines, Puerto Rico, La Réunion Island, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, USA, Venezuela.

Specimens examined: two specimens (2 ♀♀) collected during this study.Moroni (171 m aasl, lat. 11°40'47'' S, long. 43°16'27'' E), 2 ♀♀ on Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), 9/XII/2018.

Remarks: morphological and morphometric characters and all measurements of the two specimens correspond well with measurements of Kreiter et al. (2020a, 2020c) and those given for specimens from La Réunion Island, Mayotte Island and other parts of the world (van der Merwe 1968, Blommers 1976, Moraes and McMurtry 1983, Moraes et al. 2004a, Moraes et al. 2007a, Oliveira et al. 2012, Kreiter et al. 2018c).

Tribe Euseiini Chant & McMurtry

Euseiini Chant & McMurtry 2005b: 191.

Subtribe Euseiina Chant & McMurtry

Euseiina Chant & McMurtry 2005b: 209.

Genus Euseius Wainstein

Amblyseius (Amblyseius) section Euseius Wainstein 1962: 15, Euseius De Leon 1966: 86.

Euseius baetae (Meyer & Rodrigues)

Amblyseius baetae Meyer & Rodrigues 1966: 28.

Euseius baetae, Moraes et al. 1986: 37, 2004b: 62, 2001: 11, Chant & McMurtry 2005b: 215, 2007: 120, El Banhawy & Knapp 2011: 36.

Euseius kangwanensis Ueckermann & Loots, 1988: 85 (synonym according to Ueckermann & Loots 1988, Moraes et al. 2001, El-Banhawy & Knapp 2011).

The 200 species of the genus Euseius are considered as Type IV species, pollenophagous generalists (McMurtry and Croft 1997; McMurtry et al. 2013) and Euseius baetae most probably also belongs to this type. The biology of E. baetae is however totally unknown.

World distribution: Grande Comore Island, Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa.

Specimens examined: six specimens (1 ♂ and 5 ♀♀) collected during this study. Mdé, INRAPE (51 m aasl, lat. 11°44'12'' S, long. 43°14'59'' E), 1 ♀ on Bauhinia galpinii Bown (Fabaceae), 6/XII/2018; Mdé, INRAPE (51 m aasl, lat. 11°44'12'' S, long. 43°14'59'' E), 1 ♂ and 3 ♀♀ on Senna siamea (Lamarck) Irwin and Barneby (Fabaceae) and 1 ♀ on Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), 11/XII/2018.

Remarks measurements of the 5 ♀♀ and of the single male (tables 4 and 5) fit well with the measurements from the literature with slightly shorter dimensions in general and measurements from specimens of a previous record in Grande Comore (Kreiter et al. 2018b).

Euseius hima (Pritchard & Baker)

Amblyseius (Amblyseius) hima Pritchard & Baker 1962: 257, Blommers 1976: 89.

Euseius hima, Moraes et al. 1986: 46, 2004b: 71, Quilici et al. 2000: 99, Chant & McMurtry 2005b: 215, 2007: 121.

World distribution: Anjouan Island, Benin, Cape Verde, Ghana, India, Kenya, Madagascar Island, Mauritius Island, Mohéli Island, Réunion Island, Rwanda, Uganda.

Specimens examined: 16 specimens (16 ♀♀) collected during this study. Mvouni, University of Comoros (434 m aasl, lat. 11°43'11'' S, long. 43°16'31'' E), 4 ♀♀ on an unknown host plant, 6/XII/2018; Ivembeni, Banda Samlini (791 m aasl, lat. 11°29'22'' S, long. 43°19'36'' E), 10 ♀♀ on Occimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) and 1 ♀ on Solanum mauritianum Scopoli (Solanaceae), 7/XII/2018; Djoumoichongo (230 m aasl, lat. 11°48'34'' S, long. 43°17'37'' E), 1 ♀ on O. gratissimum, 10/XII/2018.

Remarks: this species was recorded from several countries of Sub-Saharan Africa, but also from India (Demite et al. 2021), La Réunion (Quilici et al. 2000; Kreiter et al. 2020d), Madagascar (Blommers 1976), Mauritius (Kreiter and Abo-Shnaf 2020b), Anjouan (Kreiter et al. 2021a) and Mohéli (Kreiter et al. 2021b). Morphological and morphometric characters and all measurements of our specimens fit well with measurements published in Kreiter et al. (2020d) and with measurements of specimens from Mauritius, Anjouan and Mohéli Island (Kreiter and Abo-Shnaf 2020b, Kreiter et al. 2021a, b).

Euseius ovaloides (Blommers)

Amblyseius (Amblyseius) ovaloides Blommers 1974: 147.

Euseius ovaloides, Moraes et al. 1986: 51, 2004b: 78, Chant & McMurtry 2005b: 215, 2007: 121.

Euseius ovaloides was described by Blommers (1974) from specimens collected on Citrus hystrix de Candolle (Rutaceae) and Persea americana Miller (Lauraceae) in Madagascar. Like all Euseius species, this species belongs to the type IV (pollenophagous generalist predators) of McMurtry and Croft (1997) and McMurtry et al. (2013). The species had been occasionally recorded from Madagascar (Blommers 1974), Papua-New Guinea (Schicha and Gutierrez 1985), Seychelles (Schicha 1987), La Réunion Island, (Quilici et al. 1997, 2000, Kreiter et al. 2020c), Guadeloupe, Martinique and Marie-Galante (Moraes et al. 2000; Kreiter et al. 2006) on various plants, though its biology remains unknown. It is suspected to be a poor predator of tetranychid mites (Gutierrez and Etienne 1986) but can be considered as a potential predator of thrips and whiteflies. This is one of the most common species on La Réunion Island (Kreiter et al. 2020c).

World distribution: Guadeloupe Island, Madagascar Island, Marie-Galante Island, Martinique Island, Mauritius Island, Mayotte Island, Papua New Guinea, Réunion Island, Rodrigues Island, Seychelles Archipelago, Vietnam.

Specimens examined: a single specimen (1 ♀ and 1 ♂) collected during this study. Djoumoichongo (230 m aasl, lat. 11°48'34'' S, long. 43°17'37'' E), 1 ♀ and 1 ♂ on Persea americana Miller (Lauraceae), 10/XII/2018.

Remarks: this species was recently reported from Rodrigues and Mauritius Islands (Kreiter and Abo-Shnaf 2020a, b), from Mayotte Island (Kreiter et al. 2020a) and from Vietnam (Kreiter et al. 2020b). Morphological and morphometric characters and all measurements of our specimens fit well with measurements in Kreiter et al. (2020d). This species was the second most collected species in our study comparing with A. herbicolus on Mauritius (Kreiter & Abo-Shnaf 2020b) and it was also very common in La Réunion (Kreiter et al. 2020c) but less common in Mayotte and Grande Comore Islands.

Genus Iphiseius Berlese

Iphiseius Berlese, 1916: 33, Chant & McMurtry 2005b: 217, 2007: 123.

Iphiseius degenerans (Berlese)

Seius degenerans Berlese 1889: 9.

Amblyseius (Iphiseius) degenerans, Muma 1961: 288.

Typhlodromus degenerans, Hirschmann 1962: 2.

Iphiseius (Iphiseius) degenerans, Pritchard & Baker 1962: 299.

Amblyseius degenerans, Zaher 1986: 99, Northcraft 1987: 521, Papadoulis & Emmanouel 1991: 36.

Iphiseius degenerans, Berlese 1921: 95, Evans 1954: 518, Moraes et al. 1986: 61, 2004b: 92, Chant & McMurtry 2005b: 215, 2007: 125.

Iphiseius martigellus El-Badry 1968: 325 (synonymy according to Chant & McMurtry 2005b).

The biological characteristics of this Ethiopian species have been well documented because of its use in controlling thrips on various cultivated plants in greenhouses. Iphiseius degenerans is a commercially available biological control agent of thrips and spider mites in greenhouse crops. It is able to feed on a variety of foods, but thrips' larvae and sweet pepper pollen are unfavourable food for immature development. This could compromise the establishment of this biological control agent when used against thrips in sweet pepper crops. According to the classification by McMurtry et al. (2013), I. degenerans is a type-III generalist predator. It is one of the most common native phytoseiid mite species on cassava in southern Africa (Zannou et al. 2005) and feeds on Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar) (Nwilene and Nachman 1996), a widely distributed neotropical mite pest of cassava in Africa, insect larvae and pollen of many plants (Vantornhout et al. 2005). Another study concluded that I. degenerans can be considered a suitable biological control candidate based on its preference for Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein) in the Mediterranean region (Fantinou et al. 2012). Iphiseius degenerans preys on Oligonychus perseae Tuttle, Baker & Abbatiello outside the webbed nests. Although I. degenerans contributed towards the control of O. perseae, it is limited and needs further investigation, considering the inclusion of alternative food (e.g. Castor oil pollen) for predator population growth (Zappala et al. 2015).

World distribution: numerous countries in Northern and Southern Africa (Demite et al. 2021), Mediterranean area (Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Portugal), Near East or Middle East (Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Yemen), in Europe (Georgia), South America (Brazil) and in North America (USA in California, Florida, Georgia, New Hampshire). It was recorded only in Grande Comore Island in the Indian Ocean (Kreiter et al. 2018b).

Specimens examined: four specimens (1 ♂ and 3 ♀♀) collected during this study. Mvouni, University of Comoros (434 m aasl, lat. 11°43'11'' S, long. 43°16'31'' E), 1 ♀ on Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae) and 1 ♂ and 1 ♀ on Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), 6/XII/2018; Ivembeni, Banda Samlini (791 m aasl, lat. 11°29'22'' S, long. 43°19'36'' E), 1 ♀ on Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg (Moraceae), 7/XII/2018.

Remarks: measurements of the 3 ♀♀ + 1 ♂ fit well with measurements of specimens reported in the literature, but especially with those specimens previously collected in Grande Comore at Moroni (Kreiter et al. 2018b).

Sub-tribe Typhlodromalina Chant & McMurtry

Typhlodromalina Chant & McMurtry 2005b: 195.

Genus Typhlodromalus Muma

Amblyseius (Typhlodromalus) Muma 1961: 288, Typhlodromalus De Leon 1966: 87.

Typhlodromalus athiasae (Pritachard & Baker)

Amblyseius (Amblyseius) athiasae Pritchard & Baker 1962: 291.

Amblyseiella athiasae, Moraes et al. 1986: 4.

Typhlodromalus athiasae, Moraes et al. 2004b: 196, 2006: 13, Chant & McMurtry 2005b: 199, 2007: 111.

This species and the species to follow belongs to the athiasae species group (Chant and McMurtry 2005b, Moraes et al. 2006). It was described from Zaire by Pritchard and Baker (1962) and was redescribed by Moraes et al. (2006) from specimens collected in various African countries. Its biology remains totally unknown.

World distribution: Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, DR Congo, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda.

Specimens examined: 19 specimens (2 ♂♂, 15 ♀♀ and 2 imm.) collected during this study. Mvouni, University of Comoros (434 m aasl, lat. 11°43'11'' S, long. 43°16'31'' E), 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀ and 1 imm. on Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Verbenaceae) and 1 ♂ and 6 ♀♀ on Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), 6/XII/2018; Moroni, Le Kalyptus Hotel (24 m aasl, lat. 11°40'58'' S, long. 43°15'45'' E), 1 ♀ on Lantana camara L. (Verbenacae) with eriophyid galls and 2 ♀♀ on Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), 7/XII/2018; Djoumoichongo (230 m aasl, lat. 11°48'34'' S, long. 43°17'37'' E), 2 ♀♀ on S. jamaicensis and 2 ♀♀ and 1 imm. on Occimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae), 10/XII/2018.

Remarks: morphological and morphometric characters and all measurements (Tables 5 and 6) of specimens collected in Grande Comore Island fit well measurements in the literature; with only slight differences except:

• concerning females (Table 5), seta z5 which shorter in specimens from Grande Comore.

• concerning males (Table 6), setae S2 and z2 which shorter in specimens from Grande Comore Island and seta r3 and length and width of ventrianal shield which are longer in specimens from Grande Comore Island. However, males collected in Grande Comore Island and in Kenya were very few (2 for both). According to Tixier (2012) this number of males are lower than the minimum number of specimens needed to determine intraspecific variations.

This is the first mention of that species for the Indian Ocean and outside the Africa continent.

Table 5. Character measurements of adult females of Typhlodromalus athiasae collected in this study with those obtained from previous studies (localities followed by the number of specimens measured between brackets).

Table 6. Character measurements of adult males of Typhlodromalus athiasae collected in this study with those obtained from previous studies (localities followed by the number of specimens measured between brackets).

Typhlodromalus spinosus (Meyer & Rodrigues)

Amblyseius spinosus Meyer & Rodrigues 1966: 30, Moraes et al. 1986: 31.

Kampimodromus spinosus, Quilici et al. 2000: 100.

Typhlodromalus spinosus, Moraes et al. 2004b: 204, Chant & McMurtry 2005b: 199, 2007: 111.

This species also belongs to the athiasae species group as setae J1 and S5 are absent (Chant and McMurtry 2005b, Moraes et al. 2006). The rapid multiplication of this species on the western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, was confirmed under laboratory and field conditions, but it was not effective against T. urticae (Mwangi et al. 2015). It seems abundant in low vegetation as it was found in high populations in a study of companion plants in citrus orchards (Le Bellec et al. unpub. data).

World distribution: Anjouan Island, Benin, Burundi Dr Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius Island, Mohéli Island, Mozambique, Réunion Island.

Specimens examined: fiver specimens (5 ♀♀) collected during this study. Ivembeni, Banda Samlini (791 m aasl, lat. 11°29'22'' S, long. 43°19'36'' E), 2 ♀♀ on Rubus rosifolius Smith (Rosaceae) and 3 ♀♀ on Occimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae), 7/XII/2018.

Remarks: morphological and morphometric characters and all measurements of our specimens fit well with measurements in Kreiter et al. (2020d). This species was described from Mozambique (Meyer and Rodrigues 1966) and then reported from Indian Ocean from La Réunion Island (Quilici et al. 2000; Kreiter et al. 2020d), Mauritius (Kreiter and Abo-Shnaf 2020b) and more recently from Anjouan (Kreiter et al. 2021a) and Mohéli Islands (Kreiter et al. 2021b) in the Comoros Archipelago.

Subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese

Phytoseiini Berlese 1913: 3 and Phytoseiinae Vitzthum 1941: 767.

Genus Phytoseius Ribaga

Phytoseius Ribaga 1904: 177.

Phytoseius amba Pritchard & Baker

Phytoseius (Pennaseius) amba Pritchard & Baker 1962: 224, Blommers 1976: 85.

Phytoseius (Phytoseius) amba, Denmark 1966: 49.

Typhlodromus (Pizytoseius) amba, van der Merwe 1968: 101.

Phytoseius amba, Swirski & Ragusa 1978: 408.

Pennaseius amba, Matthysse & Denmark 1981: 352.

Phytoseius amba, Moraes et al. 1986: 210, 2004b: 232, Chant & McMurtry 2007: 129.

This species belongs to the horridus species group (Chant and McMurtry 1994) as setae R1 and J2 are present. Species of the genus Phytoseius are supposed to belong to the Type III species (McMurtry and Croft 1997; McMurtry et al. 2013), i.e., a polyphagous generalist predator. However, the biology of Phytoseius amba remains totally unknown.

World distribution: Anjouan Island, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, DR Congo, Grande Comore Island, Kenya, Madagascar Island, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Reunion Island, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Specimens examined: three specimens (6 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂ and 1 imm.) collected during this study. Moroni, Le Kalyptus Hotel (24 m aasl, lat. 11°40'58'' S, long. 43°15'45'' E), 5 ♀♀ and 2 ♂♂ on Clerodendrum speciosissimum Van Geert ex. Morren (Verbenaceae), 7/XII/2018; Mdé, INRAPE (51 m aasl, lat. 11°44'12'' S, long. 43°14'59'' E), 1 ♀ and 1 imm. on Averrhoa bilimbi L. (Oxalidaceae), 11/XII/2018.

Remarks: measurements of the specimens collected during this study agree well with measurements of the literature, especially with those of Ueckermann et al. (2007) obtained with a great number of specimens (29) from various countries in Africa, with those of Kreiter et al. (2020d) for specimens from La Réunion, with those of Kreiter et al. (2018b) for specimens from Grande Comore and with those of Kreiter et al. (2021a) for specimens from Anjouan Island.

Phytoseius crinitus Swirski & Shechter

Phytoseius (Dubininellus) crinitus Swirski & Shechter 1961: 102.

Phytoseius crinitus, Amitai & Swirski 1966: 21, Swirski & Amitai 1966: 11, Denmark 1966: 66, Moraes et al. 1986: 220, 2004b: 236, Chant & McMurtry 2007: 129.

This species also belongs to the horridus species group (Chant and McMurtry 1994). The biology of this species remains totally unknown.

World distribution: Anjouan Island, Burundi, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Madagascar Island, Mauritius Island, Philippines, Réunion Island, Rodrigues Island, Singapore, Taiwan.

Specimens examined: 2 ♀♀ in total. Moroni (51 m aasl, lat. 11°41'01'' S, long. 43°15'55'' E), 2 ♀♀ on Passiflora edulis Sims (Passifloraceae), 9/XII/2018;

Remarks: morphological and morphometric characters and all measurements of our specimens fit well with measurements in Kreiter et al. (2020d) for specimens of La Réunion Island. This species was recorded in several countries of Asia, in Burundi, Madagascar (Demite et al. 2021) and La Réunion (Quilici et al. 2000). It was recently recorded in Mauritius Island by Ferragut and Baumann (2019) and in Anjouan Island by Kreiter et al. (2021a). It was however previously reported by Quilici et al. (2000) in the Indian Ocean from Mascareignes Archipelago in La Réunion Island where Kreiter et al. (2020d) have recovered the species in larger numbers.

Phytoseius duplus Ueckermann & Loots

Phytoseius (Phytoseius) duplus Ueckermann & Loots 1985: 37.

Phytoseius duplus, Moraes et al. 2004b: 237, Chant & McMurtry 2007: 129.

This species orchards belongs to the horridus species group. Its biology is unknown. This is the second record of this species from Indian Ocean after Mauritius Island.

World distribution: Mauritius Island, South Africa.

Specimens examined: two specimens (2 ♀♀) collected during this study. Mdé, INRAPE (51 m aasl, lat. 11°44'12'' S, long. 43°14'59'' E), 1 ♀ on Gmelina arborea Roxburgh ex. Smith (Verbenaceae), 6/XII/2018; Moroni (171 m aasl, lat. 11°40'47'' S, long. 43°16'27'' E), 1 ♀ on Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae), 9/XII/2018.

Remarks: the measurements of specimens collected in Grande Comore Island are very close to those obtained by Ueckermann and Loots (1985) for the two specimens (Table 7) and close also to those provided by Kreiter and Abo-Shnaf (2020b) for specimens from Mauritius Island.

Table 7. Character measurements of adult females of Phytoseius duplus collected in this study and those reported in previous studies (localities followed by the number of specimens measured between brackets).

Subfamily Typhlodrominae Wainstein

Typhlodromini Wainstein 1962: 26 and Typhlodrominae Chant & McMurtry 1994: 235.

Tribe Chanteiini Chant & McMurtry

Chanteiini Chant & McMurtry 1994: 237, 2007: 132.

Genus Chanteius Wainstein

Chanteius Wainstein 1962: 19.

Chanteius contiguus (Chant)

Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) contiguus Chant 1959: 29.

Typhlodromus (Diadromus) contiguus, Athias-Henriot 1960: 62.

Typhloseiopsis contiguus, Muma 1961: 294.

Chanteius (Chanteius) contiguus, Wainstein 1962: 9.

Typhlodromus contiguus, Hirshmann 1962: 2.

Typhlodromus (Typhloseiopsis) contiguus, Pritchard & Baker 1962: 222.

Diadromus contiguus, Chant & Yoshida-Shaul 1986: 2030, Moraes et al. 1986: 184.

Chanteius contiguus, Moraes et al. 2004b: 261, Chant & McMurtry 1994: 239.

Chanteius lieni (Tseng 1976): 97 (synonymy according to Chant & Yoshida-Shaul 1986).

This species belongs to the contiguus species group (Chant and McMurtry 1994) and its biology remains totally unknown.

World distribution: Anjouan Island, China, Hong-Kong, Japan, Madagascar Island, Mayotte Island, Mohéli Island, Philippines, Singapore.

Specimens examined: 37 specimens (27 ♀♀, 7 ♂♂ and 3 imm.) collected during this study. Mdé, INRAPE (51 m aasl, lat. 11°44'12'' S, long. 43°14'59'' E), 1 ♀ on Acacia mangium Willdenow (Mimosaceae), 1 ♀ on an unknown host plant, 1 ♂, 3 ♀♀ and 1 imm. on Acalypha wilkesiana Müller Argoviensis (Euphorbiaceae), 1 ♂ on Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamarck (Moraceae), 1 ♀ on Clerodendrum speciosissimum Van Geert ex. Morren (Verbenaceae), 2 ♀♀ on Theobroma cacao L. (Malvaceae) and 4 ♀♀ and 1 imm. on Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), 6/XII/2018; Mvouni, University of Comoros (434 m aasl, lat. 11°43'11'' S, long. 43°16'31'' E) and 1 ♀ on Myristica fragans Houttuyn (Myristicaceae), 1 ♀ on Litchi sinensis Sonnerat (Sapindaceae), 6/XII/2018; Ivembeni, Banda Samlini (791 m aasl, lat. 11°29'22'' S, long. 43°19'36'' E), 2 ♀♀ on M. indica, 7/XII/2018; Moroni, Le Kalyptus Hotel (24 m aasl, lat. 11°40'58'' S, long. 43°15'45'' E), 1 ♂ on Citrus sp. (Rutaceae), 7/XII/2018; Moroni (171 m aasl, lat. 11°40'47'' S, long. 43°16'27'' E), 1 ♀ and 1 imm. on Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) and 1 ♂ on Clidemia hirta (L.) Don (Melastomataceae), 9/XII/2018; Djoumoichongo (230 m aasl, lat. 11°48'34'' S, long. 43°17'37'' E), 1 ♀ on Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill and Perry (Myrtaceae), 10/XII/2018; Mdjoiyezi (230 m aasl, lat. 11°50'19'' S, long. 43°18'29'' E), 1 ♂ on Vitex doniana Sweet (Lamiaceae) and 4 ♀♀ on M. indica, 10/XII/2018; Mdé, INRAPE (51 m aasl, lat. 11°44'12'' S, long. 43°14'59'' E), 1 ♀ on an unknown host plant and 2 ♂♂ and 4 ♀♀ on Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae), 11/XII/2018.

Remarks: morphological and morphometric characters and all measurements of our specimens fit well with measurements in the many descriptions and redescriptions available in the literature, especially those of Blommers (1976) for specimens from Madagascar. Mentioned only from South-East Asia and Madagascar, this species seems quite common in Comoros Archipelago (Kreiter et al. 2020a, Kreiter et al. 2021a, b). This is the second most abundant species collected during this study.

Tribe Typhlodromini Wainstein

Typhlodromini Wainstein 1962: 26.

Genus Typhlodromus Scheuten

Typhlodromus Scheuten 1857: 111.

Subgenus Anthoseius De Leon

Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) De Leon 1959: 258, van der Merwe 1968: 20, Karg 1982: 194, Chant & McMurtry 1994: 250, 2007: 149.

Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) grewiae Zannou, Moraes & Oliveira

Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) grewiae Zannou, Moraes & Oliveira in Ueckermann et al. 2008: 48.

This species belongs to the singularis species group as setae JV3 are absent and dorsal shield setae are short (Chant and McMurtry 1994). The biology of that species is unknown. It was mentioned only from Kenya (Ueckermann et al. 2008) only from one female.

World distribution: Anjouan Island, Kenya, Mayotte Island, Mohéli Island.

Specimens examined: three specimens (3 ♀♀) collected during this study. Mdé, INRAPE (51 m aasl, lat. 11°44'12'' S, long. 43°14'59'' E), 1 ♀ on Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamarck (Moraceae), 6/XII/2018; Ivembeni, Banda Samlini (791 m aasl, lat. 11°29'22'' S, long. 43°19'36'' E), 1 ♀ on Solanum mauritianum Scopoli (Solanaceae), 7/XII/2018; Moroni (171 m aasl, lat. 11°40'47'' S, long. 43°16'27'' E), 1 ♀ on Clidemia hirta (L.) Don (Melastomataceae), 9/XII/2018.

Remarks: morphological and morphometric characters and all measurements of our specimens (Table 8) fit well with measurements of the original description of Zannou, Moraes and Oliveira in Ueckermann et al. (2008) and with measurements of specimens from Mayotte Island (Kreiter et al. 2020a), Anjouan Island (Kreiter et al. 2021a) and Mohéli Island (Kreiter et al. 2021b). 

Table 8. Character measurements of adult females of Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) grewiae collected in this study compared to those obtained in previous studies (localities followed by the number of specimens measured between brackets).

Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) hartlandrowei Evans

Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) hartlandrowei Evans 1958: 580-581, Chant 1959: 60.

Clavidromus hartlandrowei, Muma 1961: 296.

Typhlodromus (Neoseiulus) hartlandrowei, Pritchard & Baker 1962: 222.

Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) hartlandrowei, Moraes et al. 2004b: 328, Chant & McMurtry 2007: 155, Ueckermann et al. 2008: 50.

This species belongs to the bergi species group (Chant and McMurtry 1994). The biology of this species is unknown. This is the first mention of this species outside the African continent. The male was unknown until our study but one male has been collected and will be described in a following paper.

World distribution: Anjouan Island, DR Congo, Mohéli Island, Nigeria, Uganda.

Specimens examined: two specimens (1 ♀ and 1 imm.) collected during this study. Mdé, INRAPE (51 m aasl, lat. 11°44'12'' S, long. 43°14'59'' E), 1 ♀ on Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), 6/XII/2018; Mvouni, University of Comoros (434 m aasl, lat. 11°43'11'' S, long. 43°16'31'' E), 1 im. on Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), 6/XII/2018.

Remarks: morphological and morphometric characters and all measurements of our specimens (Table 9) fit well with measurements of the original description given by Evans (1958), those given by Ueckermann et al. (2008) concerning specimens from Africa and those of specimens from Anjouan (Kreiter et al. 2021a) and Mohéli (Kreiter et al. 2021b) Islands.

Table 9. Character measurements of adult females of Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) hartlandrowei collected in this study compared to those in previous studies (localities followed by the number of specimens measured between brackets).

Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) lobatus Zannou, Moraes & Oliveira

Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) lobatus Zannou, Moraes & Oliveira in Ueckermann et al. 2008: 59.

This species belongs to the large rhenanus species group (Chant and McMurtry 1994). The biology of that species is unknown.

World distribution: Anjouan Island, Ghana, Mauritius Island, Mayotte Island, Mohéli Island, Rodrigues Island.

Specimens examined: six specimens (6 ♀♀) collected during this study. Mdé, INRAPE (51 m aasl, lat. 11°44'12'' S, long. 43°14'59'' E), 2 ♀♀ on Theobroma cacao L. (Malvaceae), 6/XII/2018; Mvouni, University of Comoros (434 m aasl, lat. 11°43'11'' S, long. 43°16'31'' E), 1 ♀ on Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Verbenaceae), 6/XII/2018; Ivembeni, Banda Samlini (791 m aasl, lat. 11°29'22'' S, long. 43°19'36'' E), 2 ♀♀ on Occimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae), 7/XII/2018; Moroni, Le Kalyptus Hotel (24 m aasl, lat. 11°40'58'' S, long. 43°15'45'' E), 1 ♀ on Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), 7/XII/2018.

Remarks: morphological and morphometric characters and all measurements of our specimens fit well with measurements of the original description in Ueckermann et al. (2008) concerning specimens from Ghana, Western Africa. They fit well with measurements of specimens from Rodrigues (Kreiter and Abo-Shnaf 2020a), Mauritius (Kreiter and Abo-Shnaf 2020b), Mayotte (Kreiter et al. 2020a), Anjouan (Kreiter et al. 2021a) and Mohéli Islands (Kreiter et al. 2021a). This species seems rather common in the Indian Ocean Islands, except in La Réunion Island.

Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) luzonensis Schicha & Corpuz-Raros

Typhlodromus luzonensis Schicha & Corpuz-Raros 1992: 75.

Amblydromella (Amblydromella) luzonensis, Denmark & Welbourn 2002: 307.

Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) luzonensis, Moraes et al. 2004b: 336, Chant & McMurtry 2007: 155.

As the previous species, this one also belongs to the large rhenanus species group (Chant and McMurtry 1994). It has been collected only once in Philippines on Dysoxylum cumingianum (De Candolle) Harms, a common Meliaceae in this area. This is the first mention of its occurrence outside Philippines. Its biology is unknown.

World distribution: Philippines.

Specimens examined: Djoumoichongo (230 m aasl, lat. 11°48'34'' S, long. 43°17'37'' E), 1 ♀ on Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill and Perry (Myrtaceae), 10/XII/2018.

Remarks: morphological and morphometric characters and all measurements of our specimens (Table 10) fit well with measurements of the original description given by Schicha and Corpuz-Raros (1992). Some differences exist in the length of the shorter setae: j3, j6, R1, s4, s6, z2, z3 and z4 which are longer in Philippines specimens and setae S5 which is longer in Grande Comore Island specimens. Number of teeth of the fixed digit also corresponds with that of the Philippine specimens.

Table 10. Character measurements of an adult female of Typhlodromus (A.) luzonensis collected in this study compared to those in previous studies (localities followed by the number of specimens measured between brackets).

Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) quadratus Wu & Liu

Typhlodromus quadratus Wu & Liu 1997: 150-151.

Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) quadratus, Moraes et al. 2004b: 344, Chant & McMurtry 2007: 155, Wu et al. 2010: 302.

This species also belongs to the rhenanus species group (Chant and McMurtry 1994). It has been collected only once in China on unknown host plants. So this the first report of this species outside China. Its biology is unknown.

World distribution: China.

Specimens examined: A single female collected during this study. Djoumoichongo (230 m aasl, lat. 11°48'34'' S, long. 43°17'37'' E), 1 ♀ on Cyathea sp. (Cyatheaceae), 10/XII/2018.

Remarks: description by Wu and Liu (1997) is quite poor, with many details lacking and very small drawings, making difficult comparisons and diagnose. Morphological and morphometric characters and all measurements of our specimen (Table 11) fit however very well with measurements of the original description given by those authors. Only slight differences exist in the length of setae. The most important difference between the Chinese specimens and the present specimen is seta Z4 which is serrated in our specimen but smooth in the original description.

Table 11. Character measurements of an adult female of Typhlodromus (A.) quadratus collected in this study compared to those in previous studies (localities followed by the number of specimens measured between brackets).

Conclusion

The results of the survey carried out in 2018 in Grande Comore Island is presented in this paper. Of a total of 29 records, 25 are documented in this paper: 16 Amblyseiinae, 3 Phytoseiinae and 6 Typhlodrominae, have been obtained, namely: Neoseiulus teke, Okiseius subtropicus, Paraphytoseius horrifer, P. orientalis, Amblyseius duplicesetus, A. herbicolus, A. largoensis, A. parasundi, Typhlodromips shi, *Proprioseiopsis ovatus, Euseius baetae, E. hima, E. ovaloides, Iphiseius degenerans, Typhlodromalus athiasae, T. spinosus, Phytoseius amba, P. crinitus, P. duplus, Chanteius contiguus, Typhlodromus* (Anthoseius) grewiae, T. (A.) hartlandrowei, T. (A.) lobatus, T. (A.) luzonensis and T. (A.) quadratus. Two new species (one Amblyseius n. sp. and one Ueckermannseius n. sp.**) will be described in a following paper.

Only one species not recovered during this study [Neoseiulus longispinosus (Evans) in Kreiter et al. 2018a], 28 species are now recorded from this Island.

Among the 25 recorded species during this study, at least seven species (N. teke, P. orientalis, A. largoensis, A. herbicolus, E. ovaloides, I. degenerans, and T. spinosus) are already known as biological control agents (BCAs), some having been evaluated and some others commercially reared in other parts of the world. With N. longispinosus, not recovered this time but reported previously (Kreiter et al. 2018a) and which is also a effective BCA in many parts of the world, it represents eight species of interest for Grande Comore.

In addition to the intrinsic value of phytoseiid mite biodiversity in tropical environments, demonstration of the natural occurrence of efficient BCAs in a developing country such as Grande Comore Island is of great agricultural, commercial and strategic interests for the country.

Acknowledgements

Thanks are first due to the Department to which the senior author belong for funds that have granted travels and accommodations to him in Grande Comore Island: UMR CBGP (Internal call for proposals 2018). A grateful thanks to UR Hortsys and to the head Dr Fabrice Le Bellec that have allowed Rose-My Payet to join the senior author for collections and partly granted field collecting trips. Field collections had been made with authorizations of the government of Union des Comores by letters of the head of INRAPE, Union des Comores (ref. n°18/193/INRAPE/DG and n°18/210/INRAPE/DG, respectively). 



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Article editorial history

Date received:
2021-02-20
Date accepted:
2021-03-31
Date published:
2021-04-07

Edited by:
Tsolakis, Haralabos

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
2021 Kreiter, Serge; Payet, Rose-My; Mouigni, Hadji; Douin, Martial; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane and Azali, Hamza Abdou

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