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A description of the male of Cocoseius elsalvador Denmark and Andrews (Acari: Phytoseiidae: Typhlodrominae)

Melo, Elisângela A. dos S.F.1; Gondim, Manoel G.C. Jr2; Moraes, Gilberto J. de3 and Oliveira, Aníbal R.4

1Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz - UESC, Rodovia Jorge Amado, km 16, 45662-900, Ilhéus, BA, Brazil.
2Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco - UFRPE, Área de Fitossanidade, 52171-900, Recife, PE, Brazil.
3Universidade de São Paulo, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz” - ESALQ, Departamento de Entomologia e Acarologia,13418-900, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
4✉ Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz - UESC, Rodovia Jorge Amado, km 16, 45662-900, Ilhéus, BA, Brazil.

2019 - Volume: 59 Issue: 1 pages: 129-133
ZooBank LSID: 0526F48E-A472-46D4-B692-3B641093622E

Short note


mites phytoseiid taxonomy systematics


The present work describes the male of Cocoseius elsalvador Denmark and Andrews based on specimens collected in Brazil, representing the first characterization of a male of this genus.


The original description of Cocoseius elsalvador Denmark & Andrews was based on the female specimens, holotype collected from Cocos nucifera L. (Arecaceae) in El Salvador, and a female paratype, collected from Sabal palmetto (Walter) Loddiges ex J. A. & J. H. Schultes (Arecaceae) in Florida, USA (Denmark and Andrews 1981). Besides those countries, it has also been reported from Brazil, in the states of Amazonas, Bahia, Pará, Pernambuco and Roraima, commonly associated with the mite pests Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Eriophyidae) or Raoiella indica Hirst (Tenuipalpidae) on C. nucifera (Argolo et al. 2017; Cruz et al. 2015; Gondim Jr. and Moraes 2001; Gondim Jr. et al. 2012; Lawson-Balagbo et al. 2008; Souza et al. 2015; Vasconcelos et al. 2006). Although supplementary descriptions of C. elsalvador females have been published (Chant and McMurtry 1994, 2007; Denmark et al. 1999, Denmark and Evans 2011; Gondim Jr. and Moraes 2001; Souza et al. 2015), males remain undescribed. The same is true for the other two known species of Cocoseius Denmark and Andrews, Cocoseius palmarum Gondim Jr., Moraes and McMurtry and Cocoseius paucisetis Moraes, Barbosa and Castro (Gondim Jr. et al. 2000; Moraes et al. 2013). As taxonomy of Phytoseiidae is traditionally based on female morphological characteristics, male descriptions are relatively rare. However, sexual dimorphism is important and the characterization of the morphological features of males has a really taxonomic value, as it might provide new characters to improve species identification and help in determining whole diversity when samples also contain male specimens. This issue is especially important in the case of the genus Cocoseius, for which the description of males has not been reported for any species. Thus, the objective of the present work is to describe the male of C. elsalvador based on specimens collected from Arecaceae in Pernambuco and Bahia states, Northeastern Brazil.

Materials and methods

Males and females of C. elsalvador collected from leaves of Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. Ex Mart. and Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (Arecaceae) in Igarassu, Pernambuco state, and Una, Bahia state, Brazil, and mounted on slides with Hoyer's medium were identified under a phase contrast microscope Leica DM2500. Males were measured using a graduate eyepiece and drawn using a camera lucida attached to the microscope, with plates finalized using Adobe Illustrator CC. Setal notation used in this paper follows Lindquist and Evans (1965), as adapted to Phytoseiidae by Rowell et al. (1978) and Chant and Yoshida-Shaul (1989) for dorsal and by Chant and Yoshida-Shaul (1991) for ventral idiosoma, respectively. Measurements are given in micrometers and presented as the mean in bold followed by the range in parenthesis. The system of classification follows that of Chant and McMurtry (2007). Specimens described are deposited in the mite collections of UESC, UFRPE and ESALQ.

Results and discussion

Subfamily Typhlodrominae Wainstein

Typhlodromini Wainstein 1962: 26;

Typhlodrominae, Chant and McMurtry 1994: 235.

Tribe Chanteiini Chant and Yoshida-Shaul

Chantiinae Chant and Yoshida-Shaul 1986: 2025;

Chanteiini, Chant and McMurtry 1994: 237.

Genus Cocoseius Denmark and Andrews

Cocoseius Denmark and Andrews 1981: 155.

Type species Cocoseius elsalvador Denmark and Andrews

Cocoseius elsalvador Denmark and Andrews 1981: 156.

Chant and McMurtry 1994: 238; Denmark et al. 1999: 87; Gondim Jr. and Moraes 2001: 88; Moraes et al. 2004: 263; Vasconcelos et al. 2006: 93; Chant and McMurtry 2007: 134; Lawson-Balagbo et al. 2008: 88; Denmark and Evans 2011: 325; Gondim Jr. et al. 2012: 531; Souza et al. 2015: 104; Argolo et al. 2017: 348.

Figure 1. Cocoseius elsalvador male: A – Dorsal shield and anterior peritreme; B – Ventral shields; C – Spermatodactyl; D – Leg IV.

Adult male description (Fig. 1) (n = 4)

Dorsum (Fig. 1A) — Dorsal shield reticulate, 236 (230 – 240) long and 148 (140 – 160) wide, with 6 distinguishable pairs of lyrifissures, 3 pairs of pores, and 18 pairs of pointed, serrated setae: j1 20 (19 – 21), j3 48 (44 – 49), j4 33 (32 – 34), j5 50 (47 – 55), j6 56 (53 – 61), J2 55 (50 – 60), J5 22 (21 – 23), z2 21 (20 – 22), z3 27 (26 – 28), z4 60 (58 – 62), z5 31 (26 – 33), z6 75 (71 – 76), Z4 59 (57 – 60), Z5 59 (56 – 62), s4 65 (60 – 68), S4 53 (50 – 56), r3 34 (32 – 35), R1 54 (51 – 57). Peritreme extending to the level of z3.

Venter (Fig. 1B) — Sternogenital shield reticulate, with 5 pairs of setae and 2 pairs of lyrifissures. Distances between st1-st5 99 (95 – 100), st1-st1 47 (45 – 48), st2-st2 54 (52 – 56), st3-st3 53 (52 – 55), st4-st4 46 (43 – 50), st5-st5 38 (35 – 40). Ventrianal shield subtriangular and reticulate, 100 (95 – 105) long, 138 (134 – 144) wide at level of anterior corners and 57 (55 – 58) at anus level, with 4 pairs of pre-anal setae ( JV1, JV2, JV3 and ZV2), 1 pair of small pre-anal pores and 3 pairs of lyrifissures. Membrane surrounding the ventrianal shield with only one pair of long, serrated setae JV5 44 (43 – 45), and 1 pair of lyrifissures.

Chelicera (Fig. 1C) — Fixed digit 19 (18 – 20), with 2 subapical teeth, all distal to pilus dentilis, and movable digit 20 (19 – 20) with 1 tooth. Spermatodactyl shaft 12 (11 – 13), foot 16 (13 – 18).

Legs (Fig. 1D) — No macrosetae on legs I–III. Macrosetae on leg IV knobed: SgeIV 33 (29 – 35), StiIV 28 (23 – 30), StIV 57 (50 – 61). Chaetotaxy: genu II 2-2/0, 2/0-1, genu III 1-2/1, 2/0-1.

Specimens examined — 3 ♂♂ collected by M.G.C. Gondim Jr. on 8 Jan. 1999 from leaves of Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. Ex Mart., Igarassu-PE, Brazil, at 7°53'27''S, 34°58'36''W; 1 ♂ collected by E.A.S.F. Melo on 19 Apr. 2016 from leaves of Euterpe oleraceae Mart., Estação Experimental `Lemos Maia' – CEPLAC, Una-BA, Brazil, at 15°17'34''S, 39°04'38''W.

Remarks — Male dorsal shield reticulation, pores and setae similar to female, except that r3 and R1 are inserted on the shield, and that setae are generally shorter in the male (Denmark and Andrews 1981; Chant and McMurtry 1994; Gondim Jr. and Moraes 2001; Souza et al. 2015). Peritreme extends to the level of z3, as reported for females by Chant and McMurtry (1994) and Gondim Jr. and Moraes (2001), reported by Denmark and Andrews (1981) as extending beyond s4 in female holotype. Movable cheliceral digit with one tooth, instead of none in the female (Denmark and Andrews 1981; Chant and McMurtry 1994). Although chaetotaxy of genua II and III differ from what was described for the holotype female (Denmark and Andrews 1981), by the absence of a ventral seta on genu II and the presence of a ventral seta on genu III, the chaetotaxy of the male (genu II 2-2/0, 2/0-1, genu III 1-2/1, 2/0-1) is the same of five females we checked from the mite collection of UESC (vouchers from Souza et al. 2015) and of C. palmarum (Gondim Jr. et al. 2000).


To FAPESB (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia) and PPGPV (Programa de Pós-Graduação em Produção Vegetal - UESC), for the doctoral scholarship to the first author, and to the two anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions to the manuscript. This work was partially supported by UESC (Cad. PROPP 00220.1100.1596) and the State of São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP 99/04478-3), within the BIOTA/FAPESP‚ the Virtual Institute of Biodiversity ( GJM and MGCGJr. are a CNPq researchers.


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2019 Melo, Elisângela A. dos S.F.; Gondim, Manoel G.C. Jr; Moraes, Gilberto J. de and Oliveira, Aníbal R.


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