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In vivo evaluation of toxic effects of avermectin, Citrus sinensis var Balady and C. limon on female Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae)

Habeeb, S.M. ; El Namaky, A.H. and Kamel, R.O.A.


2009 - Volume: 49 Issue: 1-2 pages: 13-22


Keywords

avermectin essential oil Citrus sinensis Citrus limon Hyalomma dromedarii tick SDS PAGE GC-MS

Abstract

The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from freshfruit peel of Citrus limon, was elucidated by GC-MS analysis. Three maincompounds, Limonene (45.99 %), Myrcenol (21.85 %), Cis Ocimene (15.49 %) were found. In this study,we evaluated two essential oils obtained from two plantspecies, Citrus sinensis var. balady, Citrus limon and avermectin as control agentsagainst the engorged female of Hyalomma dromedarii. In vitro study, Citrus limon oil had a stronger effect than that of Citrus sinensis oil. LC50 and LC90 were 0.0151; 0.0316 and 0.022; 0.0527 for C. limon and C. sinensis respectively. In vivo study, Avermectin together with each essential oil have a stronger effect than thatof each essential oil alone and avermectin alone respectively, the mortality ratewas 36, 36, 20, 30 and 13% respectively. Histological examination (HE) andsodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) were done for midgut; ovary and hemolymph of the engorged female H. dromedarii within 7 days after injection with avermectin and essential oils. HE revealed thatthe basement membrane and digest cells of midgut were completely damaged. The vacuoles have disappeared from the main cell of the gut and there was nohematin in the digest cells. Gut lumen was filled with hemolysis blood afterinjection with C. sinensis, C. limon and avermectin together with each essentialoil respectively. SDS-PAGE exhibited 5, 6, 11, 5, 5, 6, 8 bands for ovary and 6, 3,6, 9, 5, 4 for hemolymph of engorged female H. dromedarii injected with C. limon, C. sinensis, avermectin and avermectin together with each essential oils, negative and positive control respectively. Our results indicated that the essentialoils of C. limon and C. sinensis have strong toxic effect on female H. dromedarii than avermectin alone.

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Article editorial history

Date accepted:
2008-11
Date published:
2009-12-15

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
2009 Habeeb, S.M.; El Namaky, A.H. and Kamel, R.O.A.

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